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In the process of iron and steel smelting, if the carbon content in the molten iron is not improved well, it will affect the quality of the steel and increase the cost of smelting and casting. In order to ensure the quality of steel casting, the quality of smelting can be improved by increasing the amount of smelted pig iron, but the raw iron of pig iron is relatively high. When using a recarburizer, it is not necessary to put too much pig iron. It is possible to increase the carbon content in the molten iron.

At present, there are many materials for cast iron recarburizers on the market. In general, coal quality recarburizers, petroleum coke recarburizers, calcined petroleum cokes, graphitized petroleum coke recarburizers and artificial graphite can be used as cast iron smelting. Recarburizer used. Although these products can be used as recarburizers, you must choose the right recarburizer when you buy them. If the quality of the products to be cast is high, you need to choose artificial graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer.

If the quality of the smelting metal is not high, you can choose a lower cost recarburizer. For example, in converter smelting, when high carbon steel is used, you can use petroleum coke with a lot of impurities as a recarburizer. However, the requirements for the recarburizer for the top-blown converter steelmaking are higher than the carbon of the fixed furnace recarburizer. The ash, volatiles, sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen and other impurities are also required to be high in content, and are required to be dry, clean, and granular. Moderately, it is necessary to choose a calcined coke recarburizer and a graphitized recarburizer.

Among them, the most used mainstream carbonizers specifications are: fixed carbon C ≥ 98%, volatile matter ≤ 1.0%, sulfur content ≤ 1%, moisture ≤ 0.5%, particle size is more than 1-5mm, this recarburizer The indicator shows the calcined petroleum coke recarburizer, which is calcined petroleum coke. In the past, in the domestic smelting industry, relatively low-end non-graphitizing recarburizers were generally used. With the improvement of product quality and upgrading, more and more enterprises using graphitized petroleum coke in China will increase carbonization of graphitized petroleum coke. The indicators of the agent are: fixed carbon C ≥ 98.5%, volatile matter ≤ 0.5%, sulfur content ≤ 0.1%, moisture ≤ 0.5%, particle size between 0-5mm.

Different types of recarburizers are used differently. In the process of selecting a recarburizing agent for steel making, the particle size should be moderate, the particle size is too fine to be easily burned, and when it is too coarse to be added, it floats on the surface of the molten steel and is not easily absorbed by the molten steel. With the development of the market, the quality requirements of steelmaking refining agents are getting higher and higher, especially the conversion from coal quality carbonizers to calcined petroleum coke recarburizers, or graphitized petroleum coke recarburizers. .

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The recarburizer is a material used to increase the carbon content. The main component is carbon. There are many materials that can be used as a recarburizer. Commonly used are coke and anthracite, calcined petroleum coke, graphitized petroleum coke, and graphite (artificial graphite). , natural graphite) and mixtures made from such materials.

1. Coke and anthracite
Coke is a type of solid fuel. It is obtained by dry distillation of coal under high temperature conditions of about 1000 °C. The main component is fixed carbon, followed by ash, and contains less volatile matter and sulfur. Silver-gray, metallic luster. Hard and porous. In addition to a large amount of coke and iron non-ferrous metal smelting (metallurgical coke), coke is also used in foundry, chemical, calcium carbide and ferroalloys, and its quality requirements are different. For example, for casting coke, it is generally required to have large particle size, low porosity, high fixed carbon and low sulfur content; coking for chemical gasification is not strict with strength, but requires good reactivity, high ash melting point, and coke requirement for calcium carbide production. Try to increase the fixed carbon content.

Anthracite is a hard, dense and high-gloss coal mine. The main applications of anthracite lump coal are chemical fertilizer (nitrogen fertilizer, synthetic ammonia), ceramics, manufacturing forging and other industries; anthracite coal is mainly used in the metallurgical industry for blast furnace injection (blast furnace coal mainly includes anthracite, lean coal, lean coal and gas coal) ).

2. Calcined petroleum coke (calcined coke or calcined coke)
Calcined petroleum coke is a widely used recarburizer, which is obtained by calcining petroleum coke. Petroleum coke is a by-product of refined crude oil. Residual oil and petroleum asphalt obtained by vacuum distillation or vacuum distillation can be used as raw materials for petroleum coke, and then coke is obtained to obtain raw petroleum coke. The annual production of American petroleum coke is about 30 million T. The raw petroleum coke has high impurity content and cannot be directly used as a recarburizer. It must be calcined first.

Raw petroleum coke has spongy, needle-like, granular and fluid states.
Sponge petroleum coke is produced by delayed coking. Because of its high sulfur and metal content, it is usually used as a fuel for calcination and as a raw material for calcined petroleum coke. The calcined plum cotton coke is mainly used in the aluminum industry and as a recarburizer.
The acicular petroleum coke is obtained by a delayed coking process using a raw material having a high content of aromatic hydrocarbons and a low impurity content. This coke has a needle-like structure that is easily broken, sometimes referred to as graphite coke, and is mainly used for the manufacture of graphite electrodes after calcination.
Granular petroleum coke is a hard granule. It is a raw material with a high content of sulfur and bitumen. It is produced by delayed coking and is mainly used as a fuel.
The fluid petroleum coke is obtained by continuous coking in a fluidized bed. It is in the form of fine particles, has no directional structure, high sulfur content and low volatile content.
The burning of petroleum coke is to remove sulfur, moisture, and volatiles. The raw petroleum coke is burned at 1200 ° C - 1350 t ° C to make it substantially pure carbon.
The largest user of smoked petroleum coke is the aluminum industry, 7 which is used to make anodes for the reduction of bauxite. The United States produces smoked petroleum coke, which accounts for about 6% of cast iron enhancers.

3. Graphitized petroleum coke
Graphitized petroleum coke refers to the high-temperature graphitization of petroleum coke. Under the high temperature of 3000 °C, the carbon molecular form in the petroleum coke is changed from an irregular arrangement to a hexagonal uniform arrangement. The agent is most easily decomposed in molten iron.

Characteristics of graphitized recarburizer
    1) The low-sulfur graphitization recarburizer has a high decomposition rate and a high absorption rate, and can reach more than 90%.
    2) High carbon, low sulfur, low nitrogen, and extremely harmful components.
    3) Adding graphite nucleus to molten steel and molten iron, more uniform and finer distribution in molten steel and molten iron, so that the performance is more excellent and stable.

4. Graphite is an allotrope of elemental carbon. Each carbon atom is connected with three other carbon atoms (multiple hexagons arranged in a honeycomb shape) to form a covalent molecule by covalent bonding. . Graphite and carbon products have excellent performance, are increasingly used, and the production capacity and benefits are growing rapidly. There are more enterprises of graphite and carbon products above the scale of China, and the concentration is low. With the rapid development of China's metallurgy, chemical, machinery, medical equipment, nuclear power, automotive, aerospace and other industries, the demand for graphite and carbon products will continue to grow in these industries, and China's graphite and carbon products industry will maintain rapid growth. . Graphite is mainly divided into natural graphite and artificial graphite.

4.1. Natural graphite
Natural graphite can be divided into two types: flake graphite and microcrystalline graphite. Microcrystalline graphite has a high ash content and is generally not used as a carbon reinforcer for cast iron. There are many varieties of flake graphite. High-carbon flake graphite needs to be extracted by chemical methods, or heated to high temperature to decompose and volatilize the oxides. This flake graphite has low yield and high price, and generally does not act as a recarburizer; low carbon scales Graphite has a high ash content and should not be used as a recarburizer; it is mainly used as a carbon reinforcer for medium carbon graphite, but it is not used in large amounts.

4.2. Artificial graphite
Among the above various recarburizing agents, the best quality is artificial graphite. The main raw material for the manufacture of artificial graphite is powdered high-quality simmered petroleum coke, in which asphalt is added as a binder, and a small amount of other auxiliary materials are added. After the various raw materials are combined, they are press-formed and then treated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at 2500 to 3000 ° C to be graphitized. After high temperature treatment, the ash, sulfur and gas contents are greatly reduced. Due to the high price of artificial graphite products, the artificial graphite breakers commonly used in foundries are mostly cut when manufacturing graphite electrodes.
Recycled materials such as chips, used electrodes and graphite blocks to reduce production costs. In the smelting of ductile iron, in order to make the metallurgical quality of cast iron superior, the carbon-reducing agent should be the first choice of artificial graphite. For this reason, it is better to purchase scrap electrodes from nearby companies that use electric arc furnace steelmaking or electrolytic aluminum production enterprises, and crush them to the required particle size. .

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180909 This week, China's recarburizer market started to work stably and trading was good. Among them, the market price of recalcurizer (common calcined coal) is lower. The main reason is that the downstream steel mills are affected by many factors such as environmental protection and trade warfare. In general, recarburizer shipments are limited, and the company is basically stable in environmental protection. Most of the inventory, the market price will decline. The market price of calcined coke recarburizer (calcined petroleum coke) was stable overall. The company said that although the price is high, the supply and demand side is relatively balanced, and the market is stable; the graphitized rebcarburizer (graphitized petroleum coke) market is raised by individual companies, and the market is out. The goods are in good condition and the production situation of the company is relatively stable.

Calcined coal recarburizer:
This week, the mainstream price of China's general calcined coal rebcarurizer market was lowered. The production in the main producing area of ​​Ningxia is stable overall, affected by the rain, and the transportation is slightly limited. The enterprises are mostly in the process of rectification and maintenance, preparing for the acceptance at the end of September. Due to the downstream receiving, the enterprises are more or less in stock, the market In general, the overall transaction is relatively light, and the mainstream market price is down. The overall market production in North China is relatively stable, but environmental protection pressure is still not small. The overall performance of the market is generally high, mainly depending on the poor start of the downstream steel mills.

Calcined post-recarburizer:
This week, the mainstream price of the calcined coke recarburizer market remained stable and the market was stable. In the northeast and north China, the production of enterprises is stable, the price of calcined coke is rising, and the cost pressure of enterprises is increasing. However, in view of the high price in the downstream market, the price intention is weak, the production enterprises are still shipping, and the mainstream prices of the market have not yet fully fluctuated.

Graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer:
This week, the market price of China's graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer was stable, and the company's price intention was strong. The main reason was the increase in cost. The crude oil price of raw materials rose in the mainstream, and the high-end operation, individual companies raised product prices. Among them, the production of individual enterprises in Henan and Xinjiang was suspended due to environmental protection, and the operating rate fell. In addition, the graphitization enterprises of anode materials in the market will start construction in the second half of the year, and the output will be released. Graphitized rebcarurizer is highly concentrated in the Inner Mongolia region. Enterprises in Jiangsu Province have normal production, good shipments and smooth exports.

Recarburizer is mainly used in steel smelting process. Due to improper ingredients or improper loading and excessive decarburization, the carbon content in steel or iron sometimes fails to meet the expected requirements. At this time, carbon is added to steel or molten iron. The relationship between recarburizer and steel is also very close. Domestic steel prices have stabilized this week. Recently, the market turnover is weak, but the recent environmental protection inspection work in Shandong is in full swing. The inventory of various steel mills has decreased, and the market price support is strong. Steel mills have obvious willingness to price, and the market price on the weekend has also risen slightly, but the mainstream temporary stability has been comprehensively considered. It is expected that the short building materials market will be operated in a multi-country volatility with a range of 50 yuan/ton.

Forecast of the market outlook: the raw material price of raw calcined coal will rebound in September due to the limited price of environmental protection acceptance enterprises, and the price of the crude calcined recarburizer will develop in a stable-up mode. The price of the calcined recarburizer and the graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer is driven by cost, and the price is stable or slightly upward.

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The use of recarburizers, as the name implies, is to increase the content of carbon. Its main purpose is to increase the carbon content lost during the steelmaking process. If the carbon content does not meet the expected requirements during the steelmaking process, a certain proportion is required. The recarburizer enhances the carbon content of the molten steel and smelts the ideal steel.

There are many kinds of raw materials for recarburizers, and the production process is also different. There are wood carbons, coal carbons, petroleum cokes, etc., while petroleum cokes are divided into calcined coke recarburizers and graphitized recarburizers. The current mainstream recarburizer.

The calcined petroleum coke recarburizer refers to the calcination of the raw material petroleum coke, and the temperature is controlled at 1250~1380°C. During the calcination process, the structure and element composition of the petroleum coke undergo a series of deep changes, thereby improving their physics. Chemical properties.
Why is petroleum coke calcined?
The purpose of calcination:
1. Eliminate volatiles and moisture in petroleum coke raw materials. After calcination, the volatile matter is 0.5% or less, and the water content is 0.3% or less.
The calcined volatiles and moisture represent the degree of calcination, which does not require secondary shrinkage and crack formation during calcination.
2. Improve the density and mechanical strength of petroleum coke raw materials. The true density is 2.00 g/cm3 or more.
The true density of the calcined coke affects the true density of the final product, and the mechanical strength is low. The bulk density is low, which affects the molding. The main performance is difficult to form. The height of the green block does not meet the requirements within the required time, which affects the operation of the aluminum electrolytic cell.
3. Improve the electrical conductivity of petroleum coke raw materials.
The calcined coke specific resistance affects the final product resistivity.
4. Improve the chemical stability of petroleum coke raw materials. Improved oxidation resistance.

Graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer is a process of treating petroleum coke into high temperature by graphite. This process is the process of energizing petroleum coke and then calcining at a high temperature of 3000 degrees, so that the carbon molecular form of petroleum coke is changed from irregular arrangement to hexagonal uniformity. In the way of arrangement, petroleum coke in this way can be better decomposed in molten iron to improve the effect of carbon absorption. Graphitized petroleum coke is the best refining agent for smelting. In the steelmaking industry, to produce good steel, there must be good raw materials, including good recarburizers, and graphitized petroleum coke is the best recarburizer. In the absence of graphitized petroleum coke, the graphite electrode has less scrap and higher price, which not only increases the cost of steelmaking, but also restricts the development of the steel industry. The appearance of graphitized petroleum coke breaks this bottleneck.

How much is a ton of recarburizer? The price of recarburizer depends on the specific indicators and particle size, such as the amount of fixed carbon, the amount of sulfur, the size of the grain, etc., in order to report the exact price, as well as the source of goods and freight, etc., Foshan Jitian Foundry Co., Ltd. mainly supplies calcined After the coke recarburizer and graphitization recarburizer, for Guangdong, Hunan, Guangxi, Jiangxi, Fujian and other provinces, customers are welcome to contact 2018 the most new carbon agent price, indicators and granularity!

Calcined coke recarburizer (petroleum coke): 2018.09.02 This week, the mainstream price of calcined coke recarburizer market remained stable, and individual companies offered slightly higher prices, and the market was stable. Raw materials: The price of domestic medium-high sulfur calcined coke has risen this week, with a concentration of 70-150 yuan/ton. The main reason for the increase in coke price is supply reduction and cost increase. In terms of raw materials, domestic petroleum coke prices are still rising mainly this week. The local refinery coke price has started to fall slightly on Wednesday. On the supply side, the supply of calcined coke in Shandong has decreased this week, mainly due to the impact of environmental supervision. Shandong this week The operating rate of Dongying calcined coke was significantly reduced. Most enterprises cut production by half and one was shut down. The production of calcined coke in other parts of Shandong has not been affected significantly. The fluctuations of calcined coke in Jiangsu and Hebei this week are not significant. Market outlook: It is expected that the market price of domestic medium and high sulfur calcined coke will be stabilized and stabilized next week.

Graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer (petroleum coke): 2018.09.02 This week, the price of graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer was stable, the market spot was abundant, and the shipment situation was general. Among them, the production of individual enterprises in Henan and Xinjiang was suspended due to environmental protection, and the operating rate fell. In addition, the graphitization enterprises of anode materials in the anode market will be put into production in the second half of the year. It is expected that the output will be released one after another, affecting the overall supply of graphitized recarburizer market. The concentration of negative electrode enterprises in Inner Mongolia is high, and the graphitization and recarburizer processing enterprises have also been transferred, and the market concentration has increased. The Jiangsu area is operating normally and the shipments are good. The orders are mainly for the old customers. The anode materials processing enterprises in Qinghai, Lanzhou, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia and other regions have higher activity and increased production.

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Foshan Yoshida Casting Materials Co., Ltd. has long-term supply of various particle size indicators of recarburizers, calcined coke recarburizers and graphitized recarburizers. There are various indicators, and the particle size can be selected according to customer needs.

The calcined coke recarburizer is obtained by calcining petroleum coke, also called calcined coke, calcined petroleum coke. The main component is carbon. Its role is to increase carbon as its name suggests. However, the quality of different recarburizers is not the same. The higher the carbon content, the lower the basic impurities (basic impurities refer to ash, volatiles, moisture, etc.). Another one is the sulfur and nitrogen content in the composition. The role of sulfur is basically clear. The inclusion of a certain amount of sulfur in the cast iron can better improve the physical properties of the casting. In recent years, the nitrogen content has also been extensively studied. The nitrogen content is too high, nitrogen holes are generated, the nitrogen content is too low, the hardness of the castings is not high, and the ferrite is much.

The role of the calcined coke recarburizer is for casting cast iron and cast steel. Castings have a requirement for carbon, so the recarburizer is used to increase the carbon content of the molten iron. The common charge in smelting is pig iron, scrap steel, and recycled material. The carbon content of pig iron is high, but the purchase price is higher than that of scrap steel. Therefore, increasing the amount of scrap steel, adding high-quality recarburizer, reducing the amount of pig iron added, saving production costs and meeting the production needs. The recarburizer is slightly different for each batch. You have to be a specific percentage, which is not realistic. Other ingredients are ash, moisture, sulfur, phosphorus and the like.

Graphite recarburizer has high degree of graphitization, low sulfur, low nitrogen, less harmful impurities, very fast dissolution, no absorption, no residue, no floating, no residue, less added; low sulfur and low nitrogen, very graphitized High, very suitable for all (or most) use of shavings, cold-filled materials, briquettes, wire, particle steel as raw materials, smelting vermicular cast iron, ductile iron, gray cast iron. We will provide targeted recarburizers according to the characteristics of different customers' process castings, and it is not expensive to ensure that the products are easy to use!

Scope of application: It is used for carbonization of cast iron and cast iron in various electric furnaces. It is especially suitable for the ball mill cast iron industry with strict requirements on product quality and strict sulfur control. Compared with other types of recarburizers, it has an absolute price advantage. The intermediate frequency furnace of half a ton to 12 tons, the furnace temperature is controlled at about 1500 degrees. The absorption rate can reach up to 93%.

Particle size: 0-2mm, 1-2mm, 0-3mm, 1-3mm, 1-5mm...etc. (can be selected according to customer's needs)

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1. Petroleum coke
Petroleum coke is a black or dark gray hard solid petroleum product with metallic luster and porosity. It is a carbonaceous material composed of tiny graphite crystals in the form of granules, columns or needles. The petroleum coke component is a hydrocarbon containing 90-97% carbon, 1.5-8% hydrogen, and nitrogen, chlorine, sulfur and heavy metal compounds.
Petroleum coke is a by-product of the delayed coking unit's feedstock oil cracking at high temperatures to produce light oil. The production of petroleum coke is about 25-30% of the feedstock oil. The low calorific value is about 1.5-2 times of coal, the ash content is not more than 0.5%, the volatile matter is about 11%, and the quality is close to anthracite.

2. The quality standard of petroleum coke
Delayed petroleum coke refers to the raw coke produced by the delayed coking unit, also known as ordinary coke. The current domestic production enterprises are mainly produced according to the industry standard SH0527-92 formulated by the former China Petrochemical Corporation. The standard is mainly classified according to the petroleum coke content:
No.1 coke is suitable for the production of ordinary power graphite electrodes in the steelmaking industry, and is also suitable for the aluminum industry for carbon for aluminum;
No. 2 coke is used as electrode paste and graphite electrode for electrolysis cell (furnace) in the aluminum smelting industry;
No. 3 coke is used to produce silicon carbide (abrasive material) and calcium carbide (calcium carbide), as well as other carbon products. It is also used in the manufacture of anode bottom blocks for aluminum-making electrolysis cells and for blast furnace carbon lining or furnace bottom construction.

3. The main use of petroleum coke
The main uses of petroleum coke are prebaked anodes and anode pastes for electrolytic aluminum, carbon generators for carbon industry, graphite electrodes, silicon for smelting industry, and fuels.
According to the structure and appearance of petroleum coke, petroleum coke products can be divided into four types: needle coke, sponge coke, projectile coke and powder coke:
(1) Needle coke, with obvious needle-like structure and fiber texture, mainly used as high-power graphite electrode and ultra-high power graphite electrode in steel making. Since needle coke has strict quality index requirements in terms of sulfur content, ash content, volatile matter and true density, there are special requirements for the production process and raw materials of needle coke.
(2) Sponge coke, with high chemical reactivity and low impurity content, mainly used in the aluminum industry and carbon industry.
(3) Projectile coke or spherical coke: The shape is spherical and the diameter is 0.6-30mm. It is generally produced from high sulfur and high asphaltene residue and can only be used as industrial fuel for power generation and cement.
(4) Powder coke: produced by fluidized coking process, its fine particles (0.1-0.4mm in diameter), high volatile content and high thermal expansion coefficient, can not be directly used in electrode preparation and carbon industry.

4. Calcined petroleum coke
In the case of a graphite electrode for steel making or an anode paste (melting electrode) for producing aluminum or magnesium, it is necessary to calcine the green coke in order to meet the requirements of petroleum coke (green coke). The calcination temperature is generally around 1300 ° C, in order to remove the petroleum coke volatiles as much as possible. This can reduce the hydrogen content of the petroleum coke rework, increase the degree of graphitization of the oil coke, thereby improving the high temperature strength and heat resistance of the graphite electrode, and improving the electrical conductivity of the graphite electrode. Calcined petroleum coke is mainly used in the production of graphite electrodes, carbon paste products, diamond sand, food grade phosphorus industry, metallurgical industry and calcium carbide. The most widely used graphite electrode. The raw coke can be directly used for calcium carbide as the main material of calcium carbide without calcination, and silicon carbide and boron carbide are produced as abrasive materials. It can also be used directly as coke or blast furnace wall lining carbon brick for metallurgical industry blast furnace, or as compact coke for casting process.

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1. The most important component of the calcined coke recarburizer is carbon. Its role is to increase carbon as its name suggests. However, the quality of different recarburizers is not the same. The higher the carbon content, the lower the basic impurities (basic impurities refer to ash, volatiles, moisture, etc.). Another one is the sulfur and nitrogen content in the composition. The role of sulfur is basically clear. The inclusion of a certain amount of sulfur in the cast iron can better improve the physical properties of the casting. In recent years, the nitrogen content has also been extensively studied. The nitrogen content is too high, nitrogen holes are generated, the nitrogen content is too low, the hardness of the castings is not high, and the ferrite is much.

2. The role of the post-calcined coke recarburizer is for casting cast iron and cast steel. Castings have a requirement for carbon, so the recarburizer is used to increase the carbon content of the molten iron. The common charge in smelting is pig iron, scrap steel, and recycled material. The carbon content of pig iron is high, but the purchase price is higher than that of scrap steel. Therefore, increasing the amount of scrap steel, adding high-quality recarburizer, reducing the amount of pig iron added, saving production costs and meeting the production needs. The recarburizer is slightly different for each batch. You have to be a specific percentage, which is not realistic. Other ingredients include ash, moisture, sulfur, phosphorus and the like. High-quality recarburizers generally refer to graphitized recarburizers. Under high temperature conditions, the arrangement of carbon atoms is in the microscopic form of graphite, so it is called graphitization. Graphitization can reduce the content of impurities in the recarburizer, increase the carbon content of the recarburizer, and lower the sulfur content, so the price is relatively high.

3. Conventional particle size of calcined coke recarburizer: small particle size: 0-1mm, 0.5-2mm, 0-2mm, etc.; medium grain size: 1-3mm, 0-3mm, 0-5mm, 1-5mm, 3-5mm , 3-8mm, etc.; Large particle size: 8-30mm, etc., but the actual use requirements also have various particle sizes, and the screening plant can screen out various particle sizes.

4. The particle size of the recarburizing agent is too thin to be easily burned. When it is too thick, it floats on the surface of the molten steel and is not easily absorbed by the molten steel. The particle size of the induction furnace is 0.5-6mm, wherein the steel and other ferrous metals have a particle size of 1-8mm, the high carbon steel requires low nitrogen, the particle size is 1-5mm, etc., and the specific needs of the workpiece are smelted according to the specific furnace type. The specific details and selection of the types and the like.

The general requirements for carbon refining agents for steelmaking or cast iron are:

1. The fixed carbon should be high, the content of ash, volatile matter and sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen and other impurities should be low, and should be dry, clean and moderate in particle size.

2. Its fixed carbon ≥ 98%, volatile matter ≤ 1.0%, S ≤ 1%, moisture ≤ 0.5%.

The calcined coke recarburizer produced by Foshan Yoshida Foundry Materials Co., Ltd. can meet this requirement and has the characteristics of low melting point and high absorption rate. The calcined coke recarburizer has no effect on the chemical composition of steel, total inclusions, crystallinity, grain structure and mechanical properties, and the quality pass rate of steel is 100%.

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Analysis of 20180813 weeks: Last week, the petroleum coke price continued to rise, the market supply was tight and the price of downstream anodes pushed up. The oil coke market performed well and the price was mostly raised. In detail, Sinopec's refineries this week, the price of petroleum coke in Shandong area has been raised by 20-30 yuan / ton, CNOOC's refinery petroleum coke price increased by 70-350 yuan / ton this week, CNPC's refinery this week The price mainstream is stable, and only the price of Xinjiang Dushanzi petroleum coke is raised by 50 yuan/ton. The price of local refining is raised by 30-130 yuan/ton.
    

(1) In terms of Sinopec, the refinery's petroleum coke shipments remained good this week, with prices in Shandong rising significantly, mainly supported by the price of Shandong refining, and market factors analysis:

1. The transaction price of the downstream anode market in August rose for the first time this year, which significantly boosted the downstream calcined coke market;

2. The market price of electrolytic aluminum has risen sharply this week, which is good for the industry;

3. The operating rate of the local coking unit has not improved, the refinery petroleum coke has maintained low inventory, the market has found positive, and the price has continued to rise.

4. High-sulfur petroleum coke shipments are good, the market price of downstream calcined coke is slowly increasing, while the price of raw petroleum coke continues to increase, and the actual transaction price of calcined coke in Jiangsu this month has not increased significantly.

5. The United States announced that the second part of the $50 billion tariff list will be levied on August 23, and then China’s corresponding 16 billion will also start to impose tariffs. The list contains petroleum coke, which is good for domestic high. Sulfur petroleum coke market trading.

(2) Macroeconomic aspects

Domestic aspects:
1. Railway planning re-editing a new batch of projects In 2018, railway investment is expected to reach 800 billion yuan: 2018 railway fixed assets investment will return to more than 800 billion yuan. At the beginning of the year, the railway fixed assets investment was originally planned to be 732 billion yuan. A person close to the Iron General said that there was no invention in the article that the amount of investment was increased, but the operation of raising the amount of investment was not surprising. In the past, there was a situation where the investment amount exceeded the plan, and the railway investment should be able to grow steadily, and the demand for steel could be promoted.

2. China will become the largest natural gas importer next year: The International Energy Agency recently released the “Natural Gas Market Report 2018” in Shanghai. It is expected that by 2019, China will become the world's largest natural gas importer, and by 2023 natural gas imports may reach 171 billion cubic meters. Rice, to further solve the energy supply problem.

International aspects:
1. The US White House issued a statement on the 6th, announcing that the United States will restart a series of non-energy sanctions on Iran's finance, metals, minerals and automobiles on the 7th. The statement said the sanctions will involve the Iranian government to buy dollars; precious metals such as gold; industrial graphite, steel, aluminum, coal and software; transactions related to Iranian currency; activities related to the issuance of sovereign debt by the Iranian government; Iranian auto industry. Since the United States withdrew from the comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear issue on May 8, a total of six sanctions have been imposed on 38 individuals and entities related to Iran.

2. Russia imposes tariffs on imports of certain commodities from the United States: Since 0:00 on the 5th, Russia officially imposed a tariff of 25% to 40% on some goods imported from the United States as a counter-measure against the US-Canada tariff on steel. The order pointed out that according to the relevant provisions of the World Trade Organization, Russia has the right to respond to the US tariff on steel and aluminum, so it decided to import road machinery, oil and gas facilities, metal processing and rock drilling equipment, fiber optic products imported from the United States. Wait for a tariff of 25% to 40%.

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The United States announced that the second part of the $50 billion tariff list will be levied on August 23, followed by China’s response to the 16 billion tariff list, which has a petroleum coke, and the corresponding implementation time is synchronized with the US. It is unfavorable news for the domestic petroleum coke industry, which will result in a significant reduction in the price/performance ratio of China's imported US petroleum coke, especially for the medium and low sulfur projectile coke used in the glass industry, 80% or 2.1 million tons from the United States, and it is difficult to obtain alternative resources. The gap is huge.

In view of the current market and price of the international market, once the tax is levied, the US high-sulfur coke will not be imported again. The space for the US low-to-sulphur coke to lower the price is small. The reason for the domestic supply and demand and price of domestic petroleum coke will be difficult. Completely make up.

China's carbon production fell after the output in April 2018, which was dominated by market factors and supplemented by environmental factors. After the end of the heating period, the inventory of carbon products was large, the output continued to increase, the supply exceeded demand, and the price dropped sharply. The price of petroleum coke also fell with the price of carbon. However, due to the high inventory of refined oil products in Shandong, the delayed coking rate started to decline rapidly in March. Under the situation of continuous decline in carbon production, the supply of petroleum coke is still tight, and the price of petroleum coke is still tight. It is still at a high level in the industrial chain.

From June to July 2018, China's petroleum coke operating rate and downstream carbon operating rate were at a low level. In June, the supply and demand of aluminum for calcined petroleum coke and electrolytic aluminum were basically balanced, and carbon stocks basically returned to half-month to one-month inventory. Under the premise of stocking before the heating period, the demand for carbon is expected to pick up.

According to the currently known refinery maintenance plan, the total production of petroleum coke in July-December is expected to be 14.37 million tons. However, there are 8 local refineries that may be overhauled. If they are calculated according to one month of maintenance, the estimated production of petroleum coke will be reduced by 165,000 tons, and the output of low-sulfur coke with relatively high price such as CNOOC will be reduced by about 1.1 million. The supply of self-consumption and projectile coke in the refinery is about 2.15 million tons, the supply of domestic coke is close to 11 million tons, and the import of sponge coke is expected to be less than 500,000-700,000 tons. It is estimated that the production of petroleum coke for carbon use in aluminum from July to December is estimated to be 1,150-1,170,000. From July to December, the output of calcined coke is expected to be 9.5 million tons, and the demand is 11.87 million tons. Therefore, the oil coke is expected to be tight in the second half of the year, and the price will also rise and fall closely with the price and demand of carbon.

Therefore, in the second half of the year, domestic petroleum coke supply glass plants and other low-sulphur projectiles use less space. With the sales characteristics of domestic petroleum coke, once the supply of fuel-grade petroleum coke is insufficient or the price is too high, too much domestic coke is used. Under the expectation of production and sales, the price of domestic coke will rise rapidly, and the price/performance advantage of petroleum coke fuel will no longer exist.

Therefore, we have come to the conclusion that the US coke tariff is imposed, and the US low-to-sulphur and high-sulfur petroleum coke are difficult to import. The high-sulfur coke has little effect on the market scale of the high-sulfur coke due to domestic market reasons and international alternative resource factors. There will be a shortage of medium and low sulfur coke in China, with an average monthly gap of 175,000 tons. In the second half of the year, domestic coke shortage is expected, and the price is easy to rise, which cannot fully supplement the fuel market gap.

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The petroleum coke from the delayed coking unit is called raw coke, and the process of heat treatment of high temperature (1250~1380 °C) under the condition of insulating air is called calcination. The petroleum coke after calcination is called calcined petroleum coke, also called Calcined coke and calcined petcoke, they have different names but are the same product. The purpose of calcination is to discharge moisture and volatiles in the raw materials, so that the petroleum coke raw materials are sufficiently shrunk to improve their physical and chemical properties.

Under normal circumstances, the petroleum coke starts to escape volatiles from 200 ° C. When the temperature reaches 1100 ° C, the volatiles basically escape. In the range of 500 ° C to 800 ° C, the volatiles of petroleum cokes escape the most. At about 700 °C, the petroleum coke volatiles are mainly hydrogen decomposed by hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon pyrolysis. As the temperature continues to increase, the gas escape amount decreases, and the pyrolysis temperature increases, further promoting the structure. Tightening. In the calcination of petroleum coke, the O2, N2, CO, CO2, and S elements are sequentially removed by heat, and a planar network structure is formed inside the petroleum coke at 1350 °C. This change in microstructure reflects an improvement in the physical properties of the calcined coke (such as true density, electrical conductivity, strength, etc.).

Calcined petroleum coke is mainly used for prebaked anode and cathode used in electrolytic aluminum, carbonizing agent for production in metallurgical steel industry, graphite electrode, carbon electrode for industrial silicon, yellow phosphorus and iron alloy. Therefore, both electrolytic aluminum plants, independent carbon plants and refineries are concerned about the progress and development of petroleum coke calcination technology.

Why is petroleum coke need calcined?
The purpose of calcination:
1. Eliminate volatiles and moisture in petroleum coke raw materials. After calcination, the volatile matter is 0.5% or less, and the water content is 0.3% or less.
The calcined volatiles and moisture represent the degree of calcination, which does not require secondary shrinkage and crack formation during calcination.
2. Improve the density and mechanical strength of petroleum coke raw materials. The true density is 2.00 g/cm3 or more.
The true density of the calcined coke affects the true density of the final product, and the mechanical strength is low. The bulk density is low, which affects the molding. The main performance is difficult to form. The height of the green block does not meet the requirements within the required time, which affects the operation of the aluminum electrolytic cell.
3. Improve the electrical conductivity of petroleum coke raw materials.
The calcined coke specific resistance affects the final product resistivity.
4. Improve the chemical stability of petroleum coke raw materials. Improved oxidation resistance.

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