(2018.09.21) This week, the mainstream transaction price of China's prebaked anode market remained stable. The price of raw material petroleum coke was lowered in September, and the decline was now stable, with limited support for anode prices. With the gradual approach of the heating season, the market has a high enthusiasm for the production restriction policy. The ultra-low emissions in Henan will be checked and accepted next week. The Zibo region in Shandong is the first to issue a notice. The enterprises with ultra-low emission standards can be exempted from production. Other regional policies Will be introduced one after another.
Knowledge point analysis: What is a prebaked anode? The prebaked anode is made of petroleum coke and pitch coke, and the coal bitumen is made of a binder, and is used as a pre-baked aluminum electrolytic cell as an anode material. This carbon block has been calcined and has a stable geometry, so it is also called prebaked anode carbon block, which is also known as carbon anode for aluminum electrolysis.
Construction conditions: four enterprises in Hebei, Hebei Hongke, Hebei Quxin carbon, normal production, Zhongdong plans to switch production, Xinfengsheng block for Qinghai and Feng, Hebei region for the national three, the national five car transport restrictions Reinforcement; Shanxi area is weak, Danyuan roasting is open, partial electrode is made, Guan Aluminum plans to transform the enterprise, and plans to make electrode paste or roasting electrode has not been determined; Hubei area is strictly inspected, Hubei Tailai carbon production is reduced, and environmental protection equipment is being reformed. The company has a small amount of inventory; in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, the company has reduced production due to environmental protection; in Guizhou, Chinalco Guizhou carbon plant has changed; in Henan, some enterprises have reduced production, Boda electric porcelain processing electrode, roasting a small amount, Huihao environmental protection equipment During the renovation, the furnace was shut down for maintenance in August, and Henan Yuhui and Zhengzhou Great Wall were suspended. In the Gongyi area, Jinyu started about 50%, and the bamboo forest was processed outside the bamboo block. Individual enterprises in the main producing area of Shandong Province also actively reduced production, Shandong Liangshan Wanda raw material warehouse transformation, production cuts. In the southwestern part of the country, some enterprises have reduced production, and the carbon blocks of individual anodes are upgraded due to environmental protection reasons or the electrolytic cell is overhauled.
In terms of news:  No. 17 "Notice on submitting the plan for the implementation of the peak production regulation of industrial enterprises during the heating period of 2018-2019" indicates that the carbon enterprises used for electrolytic aluminum limit production by 50%. In terms of production line, stable and ultra-low emission (particle, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide emission concentration is not higher than 10, 35, 50 mg / cubic meter respectively), can not limit production; non-ferrous recycling industry casting process limited production of 50%, Based on the production line.
Cost: petroleum coke, petroleum coke for prebaked anodes, this week, the price of petroleum coke market has slowed down, the willingness to approach the refinery's petroleum coke clearing warehouse is increasing, and the price of petroleum coke is mostly maintained at low price. This week's main business The refinery's coke price was stable, and individual refineries were slightly adjusted. In detail, Sinopec's refineries only partially reduced the price of coke in South China by 40 yuan/ton this week. The price of CNPC's northwestern region was raised by 50-100 yuan/ton this week. CNOOC stabilized this week and the price of this year's refinery was lowered. The concentration is concentrated at 50-150 yuan / ton.
Supply: According to Baichuan Information, in August 2018, China's total output of prebaked anodes was 1,543,600 tons, of which commercial anodes were 751,500 tons, and supporting anodes were 799,800 tons. The increase was 0.77 million tons in July, an increase of 0.5%. . In August, the output increased slightly compared with the output in July. Some enterprises in the Gongyi area of Henan resumed production and the production capacity was released. The overall output increased compared with July. However, the enterprises supporting the anodes have stopped production and repaired zero production, resulting in a small increase in the overall supply of the market.
Production cuts: Henan Zhongfu and Linfeng A&M actively reduced production by 30% due to losses. Shanxi Zhaofeng Aluminium Power Environmental Inspection, shut down 65 units, involving a production capacity of 40,000 tons, and now operating capacity of 130,000 tons. Zouping Aluminum Co., Ltd. all stopped production. Chinalco Liancheng reduced production by about 160,000 tons due to electricity price problems. Henan Shenhuo (Group) Co., Ltd. reduced production by about 110,000 tons. Xinjiang Oriental hopes to reduce production to 800,000 tons due to the indicator problem. Shaanxi Tongchuan Aluminum Co., Ltd. all stopped, and the index was transferred to Meixin. The Chinalco Guizhou branch retreated to the city and the production capacity of 150,000 tons has been reduced. Huo Coal Tongshun Aluminum Industry is expected to implement around 2020 due to losses, intra-group replacement demand, or production cuts but not explicitly reduced production by 115,000 tons.
Resumption of production: Jiaozuo Wanfang Aluminum has basically completed the resumption of production and partial rotation of the trough. Linfeng Aluminium, in addition to the wheel repair, the rest of the production capacity is basically resumed. Yichuan Electric Power Co., Ltd. Longquan part of the trough was overhauled, and the rest of the production was completed. The current production capacity is 600,000 tons. Henan Zhongfu Industrial Co., Ltd. began to resume production in late April, and resumed production in late April. The resumption of production was completed and the rest of the repairs were completed. Henan Wanji Aluminum has a current operating capacity of 570,000 tons. Henan Yongdeng Aluminum Co., Ltd. (Yangcheng) Branch completed the resumption of production.
New investment: Shaanxi Meixin began commissioning equipment on September 15 and is expected to start production in November. The 125,000 tons of network fee in the fourth section of Guizhou Huaren Aluminum Industry has been resolved, and it is expected to be completed in mid-October. Yingkou Xintai Aluminum started production on September 5th. The remaining 88 troughs of Huayun New Materials on the 21st of the second plant began to start, and are expected to be completed in late September. Yun Aluminum Haixin Aluminum Co., Ltd. is expected to start production to around 150,000 tons during the year. Xinhengfeng Energy started production in August 2018 and plans to start production of 200,000 tons. The problem of 125,000 tons of electricity in the first phase of Guizhou Xingren Denggao New Material was suspended again and is expected to continue in early November. The first phase of Gansu Zhongrui Aluminum Industry has completed 100,000 tons, and the second phase has not yet started production. Guangxi Hualei new materials four stages of 100,000 tons due to unit maintenance delayed production until October. Mengtai Aluminum is expected to complete production of 250,000 tons within the year. Inner Mongolia Chuangyuan Metal Co., Ltd., with a current operating capacity of 90,000 tons, is now temporarily put into operation due to the price of electricity. Shanxi Chinalco China Resources currently operates at a capacity of 80,000 tons and is temporarily stable. Guangxi Suyuan II series began to build 100,000 tons, and it is expected to start production at the end of October. Guangxi Debao Baiyuan Aluminum Industry has a series of 100,000 tons of current operating capacity of 65,000 tons, which is expected to be completed in October. The 100,000 tons of aluminum in the Tianlin Bailing Mine in Guangxi began production in early May 2018 and is currently in slow production. Guangxi Laibin Yinhai Aluminum has a production capacity of 500,000 tons. Heqing Yixin Aluminum Co., Ltd. is expected to start production in October 2018.
Market outlook: By the end of the third quarter, the price of prebaked anodes experienced a total loss in the first half of the year, and the price recovery gradually stimulated industry confidence. The price of raw material petroleum coke was moderate, the price of coal tar pitch was stable, and the support of anode cost was limited. The downstream electrolytic aluminum enterprises were subject to the cost of self-provided power plants, and the cost would be reduced. However, enterprises are now stocking winter inventory, which is good for anode consumption. Individual supporting anode factory overhaul, external anode, increase anode market demand, it is expected that the anode price may still increase the price, the range is about 100 yuan / ton.
Remarks: At present, domestic and foreign electrolytic aluminum production enterprises have large gaps in the procurement requirements for prebaked anodes. Foreign large-scale electrolytic aluminum production enterprises seek to maximize the comprehensive benefits of electrolytic aluminum production. Therefore, in the process of purchased prebaked anodes, prebaked anodes are required. There are many indicators of quality; domestic electrolytic aluminum producers pay more attention to the price of prebaked anodes, and their quality requirements are relatively low. So there is a gap in the price between the two.
180914 Because the price of petroleum coke in the early stage is in the rising stage, the price of petroleum coke is steadily fluctuating at this stage, but it is still in a high state. The calcined coke and prebaked anode market associated with this are also stable.
The three major groups of petroleum coke market:
In terms of Sinopec, today's refinery's petroleum coke market is trading smoothly, and there are no other changes in refinery indicators. The sulfur in the Yanjiang area is still trading well, and the Jingmen petrochemical coking unit is expected to start on September 16. The Shengli petrochemical coking unit in Shandong will be shut down for maintenance on September 15. The inventory of petroleum coke in downstream calcined coke enterprises is mostly in the middle and low position. Therefore, the demand for petroleum coke market is relatively good. It is predicted that the price of petroleum coke in Sinopec's refinery will be stable next week.
For PetroChina and CNOOC, the price of Dushanzi Petrochemical Petroleum Coke in the northwest region was raised by RMB 50/ton today. The oil coke shipments of the plant performed well and the downstream enterprises received positive products. The commencement date of the coking unit of Shandong Haihua Group has all been postponed. At present, the atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit of the plant has been started, and the specific time will continue to be tracked.
Refining petroleum coke: Today's refining petroleum coke trading tends to be stable, the number of refineries under the coke price is reduced, and some refineries with high pre-pay prices are replenishing today. Judging from the current shipment situation of refinery petroleum coke, it is expected that the coke price will enter a stable period in the next few days, and the overall rebound possibility is slim.
Calcined coke market: The calcined coke market has not fallen due to the downward adjustment of the coking price, and the market as a whole is mainly stable.
The mainstream price of China's prebaked anode market remained stable. The price of raw material petroleum coke is high, and the prices of individual enterprises are slightly lowered, and the cost of anode raw materials is high. The promotion of environmental inspection and the approach to the heating season, strict environmental inspections everywhere, no major changes in market start-up, sporadic enterprises stop production and rectification, coupled with the downstream electrolytic aluminum market price affected by raw materials, inventory, macroeconomic, environmental protection, etc., affecting market operating rates However, due to its winter stocking, it is good for the anode market.
At this stage, the recarburizing agent is mainly a calcined coal recarburizer (coal), a calcined coke recarburizer (petroleum coke) and a graphitized recarburizer (petroleum coke), and the mainstream is a post-calcined coke recarburizer, individual enterprises. If the quality requirements are good, the graphitized recarburizer will be chosen but the price will be high. This week, the mainstream price of China's carbon refining agent market was stable and the market was trading normally. At the same time, due to strict environmental inspections, the situation in various places is relatively severe.
Among them, the market price of general calcined coal recarburizer is stable, some manufacturers offer a small decrease, mainly due to downstream receiving; the post-calcining coke recarburizer is subject to rising price of raw petroleum coke, and the price of small enterprises is raised, but the mainstream price has not yet appeared; The market price of chemical refining agents is relatively stable. The start-up in Jiangsu has been slightly reduced, the shipments are normal, and the environmental protection pressure is very high. The orders are mainly for the old customers. The anode materials processing enterprises in Qinghai, Lanzhou, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia are more active.
Pu calcined coal recarburizer (coal quality): This week, the overall market price of China's general calcined coal recarburizer has been slightly reduced. Some regions have also increased due to supply and demand. The market is generally trading, and enterprises are mostly implementing old orders and maintaining Old customers are the mainstay. Enterprises in the main producing area of Ningxia are still in the process of rectification of dust-proof equipment, waiting for acceptance.
Calcined coke recarburizer (petroleum coke): This week, the mainstream price of calcined coke recarburizer market remained stable, with individual companies offering slightly higher prices and stable market transactions. Raw materials: The price of domestic medium-high sulfur calcined coke has risen this week, with a concentration of 70-150 yuan/ton. The main reason for the increase in coke price is supply reduction and cost increase. In terms of raw materials, domestic petroleum coke prices are still rising mainly this week. The local refinery coke price has started to fall slightly on Wednesday. On the supply side, the supply of calcined coke in Shandong has decreased this week, mainly due to the impact of environmental supervision. Shandong this week The operating rate of Dongying calcined coke was significantly reduced. Most enterprises cut production by half and one was shut down. The production of calcined coke in other parts of Shandong has not been affected significantly. The fluctuations of calcined coke in Jiangsu and Hebei this week are not significant. Market outlook: It is expected that the market price of domestic medium and high sulfur calcined coke will be stabilized and stabilized next week.
Relevant industry impact: This week, the domestic steel prices went down as a whole. As the snails fell sharply, the market wait-and-see atmosphere was heavier, and the fear of high sentiment spread. In addition, the pressure on merchants at the end of the month was highlighted, and the steel price was ushered back and forth. As the environmental protection policy continues to be high-pressure, the cost end is strongly supported, and the steel mills are still willing to pay a good price. It is expected that the short-term domestic steel prices will stabilize and adjust, and the downward trend will gradually narrow. For the refining agent market, the procurement enthusiasm is relatively slow, and the mainstream transaction price of the common specifications of the calcined coke recarburizer enterprises.
Graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer (petroleum coke): This week, the price of graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer was stable, the market spot was abundant, and the shipment situation was general. Among them, the production of individual enterprises in Henan and Xinjiang was suspended due to environmental protection, and the operating rate fell. In addition, the graphitization enterprises of anode materials in the anode market will be put into production in the second half of the year. It is expected that the output will be released one after another, affecting the overall supply of graphitized recarburizer market. The concentration of negative electrode enterprises in Inner Mongolia is high, and the graphitization and recarburizer processing enterprises have also been transferred, and the market concentration has increased. The Jiangsu area is operating normally and the shipments are good. The orders are mainly for the old customers. The anode materials processing enterprises in Qinghai, Lanzhou, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia and other regions have higher activity and increased production.
The market outlook: the price of the calcined coal recarburizer is stable or slightly decreased. The calcined coke refiner has risen slightly and stabilized. It is mainly affected by the price of raw petroleum coke, and the price of graphitized recarburizer remains stable.
The 2018 (10th) China Aluminum Carbon Annual Meeting will be held on September 11-12, 2018 at the Shima Hilton Hotel in Tianjin Eco-City.
To all relevant units:
The national concept of “Green Mountain and Green Mountain is Jinshan Yinshan” is taking root, and the strong promotion of high-quality development will inevitably lead to a reduction of low-level ineffective supply in the future and free up space for enterprises with good environmental performance. This will definitely form a huge impetus to the industrial structure and technological progress of China's aluminum carbon. Intelligent and clean production will be an inevitable choice for enterprise development.
In this context, the China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association Aluminum Carbon Branch will be held in Tianjin on September 10-12, 2018 in Tianjin, the 2018 (10th) China Aluminum Carbon Annual Conference and Industry Upstream and Downstream Supply and Demand Matchmaking Meeting. Interpretation of the far-reaching impact of the new "high-quality development" policy of the national economy on the industry; discussion and analysis of the new development of carbon and aluminum in aluminum; research on the supply and demand of carbon raw materials for aluminum; exploring the cutting-edge technology of carbon production for aluminum, exploring communication automation and intelligence Production management experience.
We sincerely hope that the production, technology, operation and management personnel of enterprises and institutions such as electrolytic aluminum, aluminum carbon, petroleum coke and coal tar pitch, experts and scholars of scientific research institutes, and suppliers of carbon production equipment for aluminum will participate actively. The relevant matters of the meeting are hereby notified as follows:
I. Organizational unit
Organizer: China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association Aluminum Carbon Branch
Supported by: China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association China Aluminum Corporation
Special co-organizer: Suotong Development Co., Ltd.
China Aluminum International Trading Co., Ltd.
Shandong Chenyang New Carbon Materials Co., Ltd.
Dus Group Co., Ltd.
Weifang Lianxing New Material Technology Co., Ltd.
Jinan Wanfang Carbon Co., Ltd.
Jinan Aohai Carbon Group Co., Ltd.
China Merchants Carbon Research Institute Co., Ltd.
Henan Xincheng Refractory Material Co., Ltd
China Carbon Energy (Shandong) Co., Ltd.
Hebei Jinke Environmental Protection Equipment Co., Ltd.
Shandong Huapeng Precision Machinery Co., Ltd.
Beijing Zhonghaiwei Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd.
Yancheng Lanfeng Environmental Engineering Technology Co., Ltd.
Beijing Ins Park Technology Co., Ltd.
Zhejiang Hongdian Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd.
Nanjing Bilin Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd.
Huanggang Huayao Zhonghui Kiln Co., Ltd.
Jinan Yugao Environmental Protection Equipment Co., Ltd.
Shandong Homology and Environmental Engineering Co., Ltd.
Beijing Ximatong Technology Co., Ltd.
Jilin Hengsheng Chemical Co., Ltd.
Zhengzhou Yadesheng Refractory Co., Ltd.
Organizer: Nonferrous Metals Technology and Economic Research Institute
Second, the form of the meeting
This meeting takes the form of a combination of thematic report exchange and guest discussion in the form of organization. On the morning of September 11th, the theme highlighted “Industry Development Situation Analysis, Interpretation of Economic Quality Development Policy”; on the afternoon of September 11th, the theme of the forum highlighted “predicting market price trends, supply and demand of raw materials, and interpretation of changes in industrial structure”; September 12 The theme of the morning forum highlighted “environmental protection, energy-saving new technologies, intelligent manufacturing and equipment technology exchange”.
Third, the main content
1. Opening ceremony and leading speech
2. Analysis of industry development situation and interpretation of national economy "high quality development" policy
Report title: Report on the operation of the electrolytic aluminum industry
Title: Aluminum Carbon Industry Development Report
Title: Interpretation of the National Economy "High Quality Development" Policy
Title: China Aluminum Corporation Carbon Development Report
Title: Development Report of Suotong Development Co., Ltd.
3. Forum (1) Buyers, manufacturers, raw material suppliers to connect and exchange
Title: Analysis and Pre-judgment of Electrolytic Aluminum Market
Title: Analysis and Pre-judgment of Aluminum Anode Market
Title: Analysis and Pre-judgment of Aluminum Cathode Market
Guest Discussion: (to be confirmed)
Title: Analysis of Supply and Demand Patterns in the Petroleum Coke Market
Title: Analysis of Supply and Demand Patterns in Calcined Post-Coke Market
Title: Application of Supply Chain Management in Commodity Trading
Guest Discussion: (to be confirmed)
4. Forum (2) Environmental technology, intelligent manufacturing and equipment technology exchange
Title: Development Trend of Carbon Technology for Aluminum at Home and Abroad
Title: Resource Utilization of Flue Gas Sulfur Dioxide in Carbon Industry
Title: Technical Choice of Flue Gas Detachment in Carbon Industry
Title: Carbon Roasting, Calcination Flue Gas Treatment Technology and Cases
Title: Carbon Reduction and Control Technology for Carbon Nitrogen Oxide for Aluminum
Title: Flexible Production and Intelligent Manufacturing of Carbon Raw Anodes - Elimination of High-Room Production Safety Processes, Digital Intelligent Manufacturing Solutions
Title: Exploration and Reflection on the Anode Smart Factory for Aluminum
Title: Process and Equipment for China's Aluminum Carbon Plant (Fafu Group)
Title: Quality Requirements for Carbon Products for Aluminum in Foreign Electrolytic Aluminum Enterprises
Fourth, time and place
Registration time: September 10, 2018
Meeting time: September 11-12, 2018
Venue: Tianjin Shimao Hilton Hotel (No. 82, Anime Middle Road, Zhongxin Ecological City, Binhai New Area, Tianjin)
Petroleum coke is a by-product of the delayed coking unit's feedstock oil cracking at high temperatures to produce light oil products. It is cheaper than coal and has a higher burning temperature. American petroleum coke has a high calorific value and attractive price, which is favored by cheap Indian factories. Indian cement companies use 75% of the country's petroleum coke.
At the hearing on July 30, 2018, the Supreme Court of India decided to release the restrictions on the use of petroleum coke in four industries, including cement, lime, calcium carbide, and petroleum coke vaporization. It also announced carbon-grade petroleum coke and calcination in October. The import restrictions on coke are subject to a hearing.
Beginning on August 7, India completely banned the import of carbon grade petroleum coke and calcined coke. Sponge coke is directly restricted by the import declaration of carbon manufacturers. On the other hand, the four industries with the above-mentioned open import restrictions can be imported normally, and there are those companies that can use the above four industries to import Indian carbon grade petroleum coke. However, under the situation of strict investigation of the start of the carbon plant, the import volume of carbon grade petroleum coke in India is bound to be greatly reduced.
India's electrolytic aluminum production in 2017 was about 3.4 million tons, and the demand for petroleum coke was about 1.8 million tons. The demand for carbon grade petroleum coke is basically dependent on imports. China exports carbon grade petroleum coke to India, reaching 540,000 tons in 2017. In 2017, India imported 1.99 million tons of petroleum coke and 1.88 million tons of carbon-grade imports, accounting for 18%. China Petroleum Coke accounts for 30% of India's carbon-grade petroleum coke imports. The most used is fuel grade petroleum coke, which accounts for 80% of imports. In terms of calcined coke, it exported 170,000 tons to India in 2017. At present, the calcined coke export to India may be interrupted or substantially reduced by October.
Fuel market: At this time, India has imposed restrictions on the release of high-sulfur fuel-grade petroleum coke imports, which will support international prices in the second half of the year. In the first half of 2018, China imported high-sulfur fuel coke, which increased by nearly 80% compared with last year. The coal market price has not been as good as expected since March. At the same time, the price of petroleum coke is high, the port price is upside down, and the spot inventory is high. China’s high sulfur coke imports are expected to decline in the second half of the year. In this case, India The high-sulfur fuel market is re-established, and international high-sulfur coke prices are expected to remain high. Under the circumstance of US tariffs, the expectation of China's fuel-grade petroleum coke imports will be strengthened in the second half of the year.
Carbon market: China's exports of carbon grade petroleum coke in India are reduced. If imports continue to be restricted, India may switch to importing pre-baked anode products. The prebaked anode is made of petroleum coke and pitch coke, and the coal bitumen is made of a binder, and is used as a pre-baked aluminum electrolytic cell as an anode material. This carbon block has been calcined and has a stable geometry, so it is also called prebaked anode carbon block, which is also known as carbon anode for aluminum electrolysis.
In 2018, China's domestic aluminum carbon market is tightly balanced. In the case of downstream production during the heating period, it may be relaxed. However, due to the tariffs imposed on the US coke, China's low-to-sulphur fuel market will require domestic sponges to be fixed. The amount of supplement, the price of domestic sponge coke will have a certain guarantee.
On the other hand, for India, the import of sponge coke and calcined coke (including from China) is the main source of carbon-grade petroleum coke, and Indian companies themselves will actively try to solve or circumvent the policy of restricting imports. Before October, it may cause a certain reduction in the import volume of petroleum coke imported from China, including other regions, but it will still find a way to solve the import problem. Exports to India are expected to reach 300,000 tons in the first half of the year, and actual arrivals of sponge coke and calcined coke may be significantly reduced between September and October.
According to the supply and demand of carbon for aluminum in India, the normal logic infers that India has almost no possibility of a total ban on imports. However, if the Indian High Law Hearing in October is still severely restricting imports, it may happen that India will switch to the import of prebaked anode products! The total demand for prebaked anodes in India is 1.7 million tons (2017). In recent years, the growth rate of electrolytic aluminum production in India is basically 15-20%.
As China's domestic coke consumption in the fuel market may increase, this year's market, even if the reduction of certain petroleum coke exports, will not have a big impact on the Chinese petroleum coke market price. On the contrary, in the unfavorable situation, the prebaked anode outlet may be boosted.
Due to the lack of good quality carbon grade petroleum coke in India, whether it is sponge coke, calcined coke or prebaked anode, it is still dependent on imports. For other countries' petroleum coke and carbon market, it is a problem of exporting raw materials or exporting finished products. . The existing capacity and new capacity of China's prebaked anodes are huge, which is convenient for expanding exports and seizing the carbon market for aluminum in India, which may also drive the demand for the carbon industry chain for aluminum.
First, the negative industry introduction
Since the 21st century, the vigorous development of the global new energy and lithium battery industry has led to the emergence of upstream related raw material industries. The anode material is one of the key raw materials for lithium-ion batteries, with a wide variety and complicated processes.
Since 2017, driven by national policies, the rapid development of new energy vehicles, domestic power battery companies have also significantly expanded production, the demand for lithium battery anode materials has increased significantly. In addition, due to the strict control of the graphitization plant by the national environmental supervision team, many companies were forced to shut down. In the first half of 2017, the price of needle-like coke, the core raw material of lithium battery anode materials, rose wildly.
Second, the negative market situation
Although the demand for anode materials has increased rapidly due to the development of new energy electric vehicles, it is still unbalanced compared with the capacity expansion rate. In addition, the supply of upstream raw materials is in short supply, and the negative electrode enterprises are under the double pressure of falling prices and rising costs. According to statistics, in 2017, the total capacity of lithium battery anode materials in China was as high as 370,000 tons, while the overall output was about 185,000 tons. The average capacity utilization rate of the anode material industry was only about 50%. Despite such low capacity utilization, the negative electrode materials industry has attracted a large number of new entrants due to the bright future of lithium battery.
Baotailong invested 680 million yuan to build a 50,000-ton/year lithium metal anode material graphitization project and a 20,000-ton/year lithium-ion anode material mesophase carbon microsphere precursor project; Sinochem International's lithium battery negative electrode The material project - 30,000 tons of mesophase carbon microsphere anode material project has been signed and settled in Hebei Province. The project is implemented by Jiangsu Ruisheng New Material Technology Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of Sinochem International. The total investment of the project is about 3 billion yuan; The lithium-ion battery material project settled in Jiangsu Zhongguancun Science and Technology Industrial Park with a project investment of 5 billion yuan. It mainly develops and produces new silicon-carbon composite anode materials.
Third, the lithium battery industry situation
A lithium ion battery is generally a battery using a lithium alloy metal oxide as a positive electrode material, graphite as a negative electrode material, and a nonaqueous electrolyte. The negative electrode materials which have been practically used for lithium ion batteries are basically carbon materials such as artificial graphite, natural graphite, mesocarbon microbeads, petroleum coke, carbon fiber, pyrolysis resin carbon and the like.
Before 2014, the lithium battery industry was mainly driven by the 3C digital market. In recent years, new energy electric vehicles have become the main driving force for the development of lithium batteries. The world's major powers have given policy inclinations, and the future market is extremely impressive. As another important area of lithium battery application, energy storage is also gradually developing.
Fourth, the impact on the petroleum coke industry
The negative electrode enterprise has strict requirements on raw materials. The negative electrode material is mainly graphite, and the graphite is calcined from petroleum coke. Therefore, high-quality low-sulfur petroleum coke is one of the important raw materials for the negative electrode material. The sharp increase in the price of low-sulfur petroleum coke has greatly affected the production costs of negative electrode companies. In addition, a certain petroleum coke auxiliary material is required for the negative graphitization processing.
The prebaked anode is made of petroleum coke and pitch coke, and the coal bitumen is made of a binder, and is used as a pre-baked aluminum electrolytic cell as an anode material. This carbon block has been calcined and has a stable geometry, so it is also called prebaked anode carbon block, which is also known as carbon anode for aluminum electrolysis. The aluminum electrolytic cell using the prebaked anode carbon block as the anode is called a prebaked anode electrolytic cell, which is referred to as a prebaked cell, which is a modern large aluminum electrolytic cell.
The pre-baked carbon anode is usually installed in the upper part of the electrolytic cell, and a strong direct current of 60-300 ka is introduced into the electrolyte through the carbon anode. The carbon anode has a resistivity of 50-70 μΩ·m, plus the guide rod and contact resistance. When normal aluminum electrolysis is produced, the voltage drop on the carbon anode consumed is 300-500 mV, which accounts for 10% of the voltage drop of the electrolytic cell. %. At the portion where the bottom of the carbon anode contacts the molten electrolyte, a complex electrochemical reaction (anode reaction) in which the alumina is decomposed occurs. With the participation of carbon, the final products of the anode are CO and CO2. In the production of aluminum electrolysis, the carbon anode consumes an average of 1-2 CM per day, periodically adding a new anode paste to the upper part of the electrolytic cell (for the self-baked anode electrolytic cell) or periodically replacing the prebaked anode (for the prebaked anode electrolytic cell) is the anode working. The main content is to keep the anode working continuously.
However, due to the different thickness of the anode, the current distribution is different, and local severe hot grooves are prone to occur. When the anodizing is serious, the current distribution on each anode is greatly uneven. On the anode with too much conductivity, a large amount of Joule heat The phosphorus pig iron or steel claws in the pole anode carbon bowl are quickly melted, and the iron inflow into the tank not only affects the quality of the original aluminum, but also causes the entire anode to slide into the tank. When this happens, the current distribution will be more uneven after one anode is detached, and the current may be concentrated on the other anode. If it is not treated in time, it will cause a chain reaction, which seriously affects the production of the electrolytic cell.
How to deal with it: organize the force to quickly remove the detached anode and replace it with a new anode. If there are several groups of anodes continuously falling off from one tank, the anodes to be replaced cannot be completely new, but should be taken out from other normal electrolytic cells. The hot anode with good working condition is replaced to prevent uneven current distribution. If the anode is off, the clamp is not tight and the aluminum guide rod is slid. This can lift the anode to the original height and then clamp it. At the same time, in order to prevent The adsorption of the anode on the bottom of the anode affects the anode work, and the anode bottom is scraped with a large palladium.
1. Petroleum coke
Petroleum coke is a black or dark gray hard solid petroleum product with metallic luster and porosity. It is a carbonaceous material composed of tiny graphite crystals in the form of granules, columns or needles. The petroleum coke component is a hydrocarbon containing 90-97% carbon, 1.5-8% hydrogen, and nitrogen, chlorine, sulfur and heavy metal compounds.
Petroleum coke is a by-product of the delayed coking unit's feedstock oil cracking at high temperatures to produce light oil. The production of petroleum coke is about 25-30% of the feedstock oil. The low calorific value is about 1.5-2 times of coal, the ash content is not more than 0.5%, the volatile matter is about 11%, and the quality is close to anthracite.
2. The quality standard of petroleum coke
Delayed petroleum coke refers to the raw coke produced by the delayed coking unit, also known as ordinary coke. The current domestic production enterprises are mainly produced according to the industry standard SH0527-92 formulated by the former China Petrochemical Corporation. The standard is mainly classified according to the petroleum coke content:
No.1 coke is suitable for the production of ordinary power graphite electrodes in the steelmaking industry, and is also suitable for the aluminum industry for carbon for aluminum;
No. 2 coke is used as electrode paste and graphite electrode for electrolysis cell (furnace) in the aluminum smelting industry;
No. 3 coke is used to produce silicon carbide (abrasive material) and calcium carbide (calcium carbide), as well as other carbon products. It is also used in the manufacture of anode bottom blocks for aluminum-making electrolysis cells and for blast furnace carbon lining or furnace bottom construction.
3. The main use of petroleum coke
The main uses of petroleum coke are prebaked anodes and anode pastes for electrolytic aluminum, carbon generators for carbon industry, graphite electrodes, silicon for smelting industry, and fuels.
According to the structure and appearance of petroleum coke, petroleum coke products can be divided into four types: needle coke, sponge coke, projectile coke and powder coke:
(1) Needle coke, with obvious needle-like structure and fiber texture, mainly used as high-power graphite electrode and ultra-high power graphite electrode in steel making. Since needle coke has strict quality index requirements in terms of sulfur content, ash content, volatile matter and true density, there are special requirements for the production process and raw materials of needle coke.
(2) Sponge coke, with high chemical reactivity and low impurity content, mainly used in the aluminum industry and carbon industry.
(3) Projectile coke or spherical coke: The shape is spherical and the diameter is 0.6-30mm. It is generally produced from high sulfur and high asphaltene residue and can only be used as industrial fuel for power generation and cement.
(4) Powder coke: produced by fluidized coking process, its fine particles (0.1-0.4mm in diameter), high volatile content and high thermal expansion coefficient, can not be directly used in electrode preparation and carbon industry.
4. Calcined petroleum coke
In the case of a graphite electrode for steel making or an anode paste (melting electrode) for producing aluminum or magnesium, it is necessary to calcine the green coke in order to meet the requirements of petroleum coke (green coke). The calcination temperature is generally around 1300 ° C, in order to remove the petroleum coke volatiles as much as possible. This can reduce the hydrogen content of the petroleum coke rework, increase the degree of graphitization of the oil coke, thereby improving the high temperature strength and heat resistance of the graphite electrode, and improving the electrical conductivity of the graphite electrode. Calcined petroleum coke is mainly used in the production of graphite electrodes, carbon paste products, diamond sand, food grade phosphorus industry, metallurgical industry and calcium carbide. The most widely used graphite electrode. The raw coke can be directly used for calcium carbide as the main material of calcium carbide without calcination, and silicon carbide and boron carbide are produced as abrasive materials. It can also be used directly as coke or blast furnace wall lining carbon brick for metallurgical industry blast furnace, or as compact coke for casting process.
I. Current status of petroleum coke market for anode carbon production of electrolytic aluminum
1. Classification of China Petroleum Coke Model Number
At present, the raw material ratio of prebaked anodes is 85%, the main raw material petroleum coke accounts for 85%, coal tar pitch accounts for 16.5% and others. Since petroleum coke accounts for a large proportion, the quality index of petroleum coke directly determines the pre-preparation. The quality of the baked anode. According to the division of China Petroleum Coke Industry Standard NB/SH/T 0527-2015, petroleum coke is mainly divided into 1A-3B#, which is suitable for ordinary petroleum coke (raw coke) used for ordinary power graphite electrode, aluminum carbon material and so on. Needle-shaped petroleum coke (raw coke) of ultra-high power, high-power graphite electrode raw materials. Since the petroleum coke content of coking in China's petrochemical plants is getting higher and higher, it has supplemented 4A-6# for a small amount of carbon (electrode paste, carbon brick, cathode carbon block, etc.) products, most of which are used in the fuel industry. .
2. China's petroleum coke supply in recent years
China's delayed coking capacity is composed of Sinopec, PetroChina, CNOOC and local refineries. In the past five years, the growth of the three major groups has been limited, and the main growth is reflected in local refineries. In 2012-2017, the delayed coking capacity increased by 20.66 million tons/year, of which local refineries increased by 17.33 million tons/year.
In 2017, the total output of China's petroleum coke was 27.738 million tons, of which the amount of prebaked anode available was 2,534,580 tons. Since 2017, the price of 1# petroleum coke has been too high, and the prebaked anode enterprises are completely unbearable, and so far the refinery has not adjusted the target market to the acceptable range of the prebaked anode industry. The low sulfur coke of CNOOC and some refineries in Shandong refinery also have a price exceeding the level of prebaked anode. However, in the case of market changes, the refinery adjusts the sales strategy and price, and the prebaked anode enterprises can produce in a small proportion.
2. National standard of prebaked anode and physical and chemical index of anode for electrolytic aluminum
With the goal of national environmental protection “green mountains and green waters”, the environmental protection supervision departments are increasingly strict with the emission requirements of manufacturing enterprises. For carbon companies, in 2015, the company's requirements for sulfur dioxide emissions within 400 and the latest special emission requirements for 2018 are 50 PPM, which makes it difficult for companies to choose raw materials. On the one hand: controlling costs, in terms of the current prebaked anode price, too high raw materials make the cost increase, and the transaction price reverses the enterprise's loss seriously; on the other hand: it also needs to meet the national requirements for carbon emission.
Considering only the production side, 1#-5# sponge coke can be used for prebaked anode production. According to the specific requirements of the product, low- and high-sulfur petroleum coke can be mixed for production. However, considering that graphite electrodes and recarburizers also use 1# petroleum coke, and the price level is higher than that of prebaked anodes, as well as the regional distribution and transportation radius of petroleum coke downstream industries, China prebaked anodes can use petroleum in addition to Northeast China. Petroleum cokes other than a few refineries such as Fushun Petrochemical, Daqing Petrochemical, Jinzhou Petrochemical, Jinxi Petrochemical, and Liaohe Petrochemical. Domestic environmental protection requirements are getting higher and higher. In the local environmental inspection, manufacturers in some areas have also reduced petroleum coke with excessive sulfur content, that is, petroleum coke with sulfur content >=7%.
Third, the current status of sulfur content in the production enterprises of prebaked anodes
Since 2016, the environmental protection policy has gradually started to increase the emission requirements for electrolytic aluminum and carbon enterprises. In order to control the emission, electrolytic aluminum enterprises have higher and higher requirements for sulfur in prebaked anodes. The production of prebaked anode production enterprises mainly uses electrolytic aluminum. The requirements of enterprises are mainly. At present, only a small number of enterprises require sulfur to be within 3, and other enterprises require 2.5 or less.
Fourth, the application of low sulfur petroleum coke in prebaked anode
Low-sulfur petroleum coke is very favorable for the production of pre-baked anode from the index. Various indicators are more suitable for production. 1# average price and 2# average price before 2017, the maximum price difference is 300 yuan/ton, starting in 2017## The price rose wildly, the highest price difference was close to 2,000 yuan / ton, and the lowest price difference was also 600 yuan / ton, seriously out of the range of conventional prebaked anode petroleum coke. It can be seen from the proportion of petroleum coke production models that the petroleum coke for prebaked anodes is mainly 3#-4#. Even if low sulfur coke is blended, the sulfur content of the actual calcined coke and prebaked anode is already sulfur and high sulfur. Mainly.
V. Reasons for low-sulfur prebaked anodes in the market
The pre-baked anode sulfur content traded on the market is between 1.5 and 3.5, and the production of ultra-low sulfur (0.5-1) is almost non-existent. The main reason for the low sulfur prebaked anodes is that the low sulfur coke yield is low and the cost is high, and the downstream electrolytic aluminum enterprises cannot accept the price. The sulfur content and the cost of the prebaked anode are listed in the table below.
In June 2018, the average ex-baked anode price of China's prebaked anodes was 3,200 yuan. It can be seen from Table 4 that if the production only uses No.1 and No.2, then for the prebaked anode production enterprises, only production reduction and shutdown will be carried out. the reason:
1. The cost is too high and the company will lose all;
2. The supply of petroleum coke cannot meet the needs of the market, so the price will become higher and higher;
3. Electrolytic aluminum enterprises are affected by high-cost raw materials to reduce production.
1. Most of the low-sulfur coke on the market is used in the production of carbon for steel, graphite electrode, carbon electrode and carbon-reinforcing agent. The graphite electrode has higher requirements on raw material petroleum coke, and can only use low sulfur with sulfur content of about 0.5. Petroleum coke is produced.
2. As far as the current market demand and economy are concerned, prebaked anode enterprises can only use medium and high sulfur petroleum coke to produce prebaked anodes to meet the demand of electrolytic aluminum.
3. Electrolytic aluminum enterprises cannot withstand high-priced prebaked anodes, and generally do not use low-sulfur prebaked anodes for production.
The calcined petroleum coke recarburizer is obtained by calcining petroleum coke, which is refined from petroleum, and the refining of petroleum is caused by deep cracking reaction of the residue under the conditions of heating and long reaction time. It is the process of gas, gasoline, diesel, heavy distillate (see heavy oil) and petroleum coke. The main difference from thermal cracking is the different depth of feed conversion, almost all conversion of petroleum coking feedstock, and the formation of a large amount of coke.
The raw materials are derived from the residue produced by distillation of crude oil or the petroleum pitch produced by solvent deasphalting. It is also possible to use thermal cracking residue or hydrocarbon cracked tar. The sulfur content of raw materials has a great influence on the quality of petroleum coke. The gasoline and diesel produced are very unstable and contain many impurities, which must be further refined (see petroleum product refining); coking heavy distillate oil is often used as a raw material for catalytic cracking or thermal cracking.
The early coking industrial plants were coke for coke and flat furnaces. After the raw materials enter the coking kettle or open hearth furnace, they are heated outside the equipment and have been eliminated. In the 1930s, delayed coking technology was developed. In the 1950s, fluidized coking technology was developed, which greatly improved the heating conditions of petroleum coking (the former uses a tube furnace for heating, and the latter uses a part of coke for heating). ). Delayed coking uses hydraulic decoking, which can significantly improve the efficiency of the device, and is currently the most widely used. At the end of the 1970s, the flexible coking formed by the combination of fluid coking and coke gasification has certain applications.
China built a kettle coking unit in the 1940s. In the 1950s, the test succeeded in introducing a small amount of air into the coking kettle to burn the heating oxidizing coking technology inside the equipment. A delayed coking unit was built in the mid-1960s, and later produced in the delayed coking unit (see petroleum coke). In the 1980s, various refineries in China used delayed coking technology.
After delayed coking, the raw material is heated to the reaction temperature by a heating furnace, and under a condition of high flow rate and short residence time, the raw material is only reacted in a small amount, and the furnace is quickly separated from the heating furnace into a coke drum for cracking and condensation coke formation reaction. It is currently the world's main method for deep processing of residual oil, accounting for three-quarters of the total processing capacity of petroleum coking.
Delayed coking is a semi-continuous operation. When the coke in a coke drum accumulates to a certain height (about 24 hours), it is switched to another coke drum to continue coking. After the coke drum full of coke is purged with water and water cooled, the coke removal device is removed by water to remove the coke in the column, and then switched to a coking operation. The main operating conditions for delayed coking are: the outlet temperature of the heating furnace is 495-505 ° C, the pressure of the coke drum is 0.18-0.28 MPa (gauge pressure), and the temperature of the bottom of the fractionation column is not more than 400 ° C.
The hydraulic decoking equipment is divided into derrick type, half derrick type and no derrick type. A derrick type decoking device is generally used. The heating furnace has two types of furnaces, a vertical furnace and a flameless combustion furnace. The radiant chamber tube of the flameless burner is arranged in the middle of the furnace, and the burner (also called the burner) is arranged on both sides; the gaseous fuel is injected through the flameless burner to form a very short flameless combustion flame, so that the furnace tube is double-sided It is evenly heated to minimize the coking of the residual oil material on the inner wall of the furnace tube due to overheating.
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