“What are the applications of calcined petroleum coke recarburizers in brake discs and brake pads?” Recarburizers, also known as low-sulfur micro-nitrogen recarburants, are used in the steelmaking and foundry industries to supplement carbon and desulfurization. Materials are also used in other industries, such as carbon-increasing in brake disc cast iron and friction material used in brake pads. When used to produce electrode paste, it is used as a raw material. The current carbon-reinforcing agent is mainly a material after graphitization of petroleum coke.
The cast iron produced by the recarburizer process is called steel cast iron, also known as synthetic cast iron. It has the characteristics of low cost, excellent mechanical properties, process performance and superior performance. It has become a preferred carbon-reinforcing agent in the production of low-nitrogen steel, steel cord and high-strength bead steel for steel production in recent years. The absorption effect in the molten iron is good, and the slag is not returned. The use of the recarburizing agent can greatly reduce the production of the casting. The particle size specification can be divided into 20 mesh - 50 mesh, 40 mesh - 80 mesh, 50 mesh - 150 mesh, etc. according to different usage requirements, and the granularity specification can also be directly proposed by the user.
The study of the structure and properties of high carbon equivalent gray cast iron for brake discs, as the brake disc material, must first overcome the thermal fatigue failure and wear failure mentioned in the previous section. In addition, with the improvement of living standards, the brake disc is also required to have low noise and good anti-jitter performance. The brake disc material is mainly made of ordinary gray cast iron HT150 and HT200. The advantages of this type of brake disc are that there is no brake shake and no harsh brake noise. However, since the brake disc is soft in material and low in strength, it is prone to fatigue cracking and abrasion during use, and has a short service life.
Every year, a large number of brake discs and brake pads are scrapped due to excessive wear. For brake discs, it is necessary to improve wear resistance. We analyzed the nature of the hard phase to determine the wear performance of the brake disc, so adding a certain amount of strong carbide forming elements to the high carbon equivalent gray cast iron can improve the wear resistance of the brake disc. After years of research by casting workers at home and abroad, several measures have been summarized on how to improve the performance of gray cast iron: in recent years, due to the improvement of the quality of molten iron, the extensive application of the carbonizing agent inoculant for brake discs has made gray cast iron The performance has been significantly improved.
The recarburizer can be used as a friction material for the brake pad additive, and the brake pad additive graphite as a friction adjusting material can effectively overcome the shortcomings of the existing asbestos material, significantly improve the friction performance and reduce the manufacturing cost. Compared with the carcinogenicity of asbestos, graphite is a non-toxic, chemically stable, high-performance material. The brake pad recarburizer product has a microscopic structure and a scientific design of the particle size interval. During the braking process of the motor vehicle, the friction coefficient of the brake pad can be kept to a maximum extent, and the brake pad will not be brittle due to the brake, causing the brake to fail. , thereby improving the safety performance of the brake pad during use.
20190117 China petroleum coke market continues to be weak in the short term, the price of related calcined coke recarburizer is low, mainly based on volume.
In terms of Sinopec, some high-sulfur coke shipments in East China are still satisfactory. Individual refinery shipments are still normal. The downstream of petroleum coke along the Yangtze River and North China is basically on-demand. The overall downstream market performance is not good, and there is no trade in the petroleum coke market. Good support. On the other hand, as the Spring Festival approached, long-distance transport vehicles decreased, and the coal market price was weak overall in the near future. The number of return vehicles in some areas decreased, which also affected the trading of petroleum coke market.
In the case of CNPC and CNOOC, the trading of low-sulfur petroleum coke in the northeast region is generally performed. The downstream enterprises purchase on demand, and the low-cost coke in the refinery has a significant impact on the market. Secondly, the downstream electrode and the market of recarburizers have led to a decrease in the stocking operations before the market. . The petroleum coke market in the northwest region is affected by the downstream aluminum market and the low-cost coke in the mainland.
Calcined coke market: the recent sulfur content of 1.0% or so burned coke shipments slowed down, the downstream recarburizer market performance was poor, the demand for low sulfur calcined petroleum coke coke was low, and the low sulfur calcined coke recarburizer was shipped under pressure. .
[Use of graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer] When smelting in cupola furnace, the amount of pig iron charge is minimized, and graphite carbonizer is used to ensure high carbon equivalent and relatively increase the amount of scrap. Thus, under the conditions of high-temperature melting, carbon with good activity and more remarkable graphitization can be obtained by carburizing. The shape of graphite is better reflected on the casting, which is beneficial to improve the mechanical properties of the casting, reduce the tendency of shrinkage and improve the processing performance.
What is calcined petroleum coke?
Calcined petroleum coke is derived from the calcination of petroleum coke, which is a by-product of the delayed coking unit's feedstock oil cracking at high temperatures to produce light oil. The yield of petroleum coke is about 25-30% of the feedstock oil. Petroleum coke is a black or dark gray hard solid petroleum product with metallic luster and porosity. It is a carbonaceous material composed of tiny graphite crystals in the form of granules, columns or needles. The petroleum coke component is a hydrocarbon containing 90-97% carbon, 1.5-8% hydrogen, and nitrogen, chlorine, sulfur and heavy metal compounds.
In order to adapt the petroleum coke (green coke) to the requirements, the green coke must be calcined. The calcination temperature is generally around 1300 ° C, in order to remove the petroleum coke volatiles as much as possible. This can reduce the hydrogen content of petroleum coke re-products, and according to the degree of calcination, the temperature is about 1300 ° C for calcined petroleum coke, and at about 2700 ° C is graphitized petroleum coke, so that the degree of graphitization of petroleum coke is increased, thereby improving graphite The high temperature strength and heat resistance of the electrode and the conductivity of the graphite electrode are improved.
What are the uses of calcined petroleum coke?
Calcined petroleum coke can be used in industries such as graphite, steel casting and chemical industry depending on the index. Graphitized petroleum coke is of higher quality and more expensive. According to the different sulfur content, it can be divided into high sulfur coke (sulfur content above 3%) and low sulfur coke (sulfur content below 3%). Low sulfur coke can be used as anode paste and prebaked anode for aluminum plant and for steel The graphite electrode used in the factory. Among them, high quality low sulfur coke (sulphur content less than 0.5%) can be used to produce graphite electrode and carbonizer. General quality low sulfur coke (sulphur content less than 1.5%) is commonly used in the production of prebaked anodes. Low-quality petroleum coke is mainly used for smelting industrial silicon and producing anode paste. High-sulfur coke is generally used as fuel for cement plants and power plants.
1. Used as prebaked anode material for aluminum
The prebaked anode is made of petroleum coke and pitch coke, and the coal bitumen is made of a binder, and then calcined to have a stable geometric shape, which is called a carbon anode block for aluminum electrolysis. The sulfur content of this calcined coke is mainly 3.0% or 2.0%, and some have requirements for vanadium content, and the particle size is mainly 0-30mm.
2. Petroleum coke recarburizer: calcined petroleum coke and graphitized petroleum coke
The sulfur content of the calcined petroleum coke is generally in the range of 0.5% to 1%, and the sulfur content of the graphitized petroleum coke is 0.05% to 0.3%. The calcined petroleum coke recarburizer is generally used for gray iron casting, and the graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer is used for ductile iron.
3. Graphite electrode
Graphite electrode refers to a kind of calcined petroleum coke and pitch coke as the main material, coal tar pitch as the binder, which is made by calcination of raw materials, crushing and milling, compounding, kneading, forming, roasting, impregnation, graphitization and mechanical processing. The high temperature resistant graphite conductive material, called artificial graphite electrode, is distinguished from the natural graphite electrode prepared by using natural graphite as a raw material.
Calcined petroleum coke can be used in the industries of graphite, smelting and chemical industry depending on its quality. Low-sulfur, high-quality cooked coke, such as needle coke, is mainly used to manufacture ultra-high-power graphite electrodes and some special carbon products. In the steel-making industry, needle coke is an important material for developing new technologies for electric steelmaking. Medium sulfur, ordinary cooked coke, used in large quantities for aluminum smelting. High sulfur and ordinary coke are used in chemical production, such as the manufacture of calcium carbide, silicon carbide, etc., as well as fuel for metal casting. Most of the petroleum coke produced in China belongs to low-sulfur calcined petroleum coke, which is mainly used for aluminum smelting and graphite production.
About the steel or iron casting materials, there are many kinds of calcined petroleum coke recarburizers. The factory should choose the recarburizer suitable for itself. In addition to the requirements for particle size, the specificaitons are also include the fixed carbon content, sulfur content and nitrogen content.
In the general furnace smelting process, the calcined petroleum coke particle below 0.2mm is very easy to be lost. If it is added later, the loss is more severe. Nowadays, more 1-5mm calcined petroleum coke is used and the effect is also good. However, it is still based on the needs of different manufacturers.
The length of residence time of the recarburizer in the molten iron, the temperature of the molten iron, that make the effect of stirring in the electric furnace are different. The diffusion rate of the recarburizer is related to the concentration of the recarburizer. Therefore, there are many factors that need to be grasped in the process of using a recarburizer, everyone should pay attention.
Correct useing method of calcined petroleum coke recarburizer to increase carbon content in induction furnace
1. Using 5T or more electric furnace, we recommend the dispersion method. According to the requirement of carbon content, according to the ratio of ingredients, the recarburizer and the metal charge are added together with the batch materials to the lower part of the electric furnace, and a layer of metal charge is used as a layer of carbon reinforcer. The carbon absorption rate can reach 90%-95%. The recarburizing agent should not be slag when it is melted, otherwise it will be easily wrapped in the waste residue and affect the absorption of carbon.
2. The use of 3T medium-frequency induction furnace, our carbon-reinforcing agent company recommended to join the method. When melting or remaining a small amount of molten iron in the furnace, add the added carbonizer to the surface of the molten iron at one time, and immediately add the metal charge, and press all the recarburizer into the molten iron to make the recarburizer fully contact with the molten iron, the absorption rate is above 90%.
3. The use of small medium-frequency electric furnace, raw materials with high-carbon materials such as pig iron, we recommend fine-tuning of carbon-reducing agents. After the molten steel/iron water is melted, the carbon content can be adjusted on the surface of the steel/iron water. The vortex stirring or manual stirring of the steel (iron) water in the electric furnace smelting dissolves and absorbs the product, and the carbon absorption rate is about 93%.
What is the price of the calcined petroleum coke in 2019 from China? The price of calcined petroleum coke depends on the specifications and particle size, such as the amount of fixed carbon, the amount of sulfur, also the packing, etc., in order to get the exact price, more details is better.
20190117 China's petroleum coke market continues to be weak in the short term, the price of calcined petroleum coke is low, mainly based on the volume, and the demand for low-sulfur calcined petcoke is low.
Foshan Yoshida Casting Material Co., Ltd. mainly supplies calcined petroleum coke(CPC) recarburizer and graphitized petroleum coke(GPC) recarburizer to all over the world. Customers are welcome to contact for the latest price of CPC & GPC. Here are the specifications:
Calcined Petroleum Coke 1
Fixed Carbon(%) ≥98
Sulphur Content (%) ≤0.8
Moisture (%) ≤0.5
Ash Content (%) ≤0.28
Powder Resistivity/uΩ﹒m ≤600
Size：0-1mm 0-2mm 1-3mm 1-5mm 8-30mm
Calcined Petroleum Coke 2
Fixed Carbon(%) ≥98
Sulphur Content (%) ≤3.0
Moisture (%) ≤0.5
Ash Content (%) ≤0.5
Powder Resistivity/uΩ﹒m ≤500
Size：0-40mm, this usually supply to Aluminium Plant
Graphitized Petroleum Coke
Fixed Carbon(%) ≥98.5
Sulphur Content(%) ≤0.05
Moisture (%) ≤0.5
Ash Content (%) ≤0.8
Volatile Matter (%) ≤0.8
Size：0-2mm 1-5mm 8-30mm
Semi Graphitized Petroleum Coke
Fixed Carbon(%) ≥98
Sulphur Content(%) ≤0.3
Moisture (%) ≤0.5
Ash Content (%) ≤0.8
Volatile Matter (%) ≤0.8
Size：0-1mm 0-2mm 0-3mm 0.5-2mm 2-8mm 8-30mm
Here is the situation about China market:
Low sulfur calcined calcined petroleum coke recarburizer:
After the 2019 New Year's Day, the domestic low-sulfur calcined coke price was lowered, mainly due to the poor market conditions in the downstream market. The operating rate of graphite electrode enterprises decreased.
Nearly the end of the year, the enterprises have weak purchasing intentions and operate on demand, so it is not good for the low-sulfur calcination coke market. Support, while the current market is in a downward trend, buying up and not buying down the mentality, low-sulfur calcined coke enterprises are mainly based on old customers, some of the calcined coke enterprises are under pressure, most companies have obvious inventory.
The usage of low-sulfur calcined petroleum coke sieves was stable this week. The demand of downstream steel mills and foundry enterprises was generally low. There was no obvious positive effect on raw materials. The impact of capital pressure on enterprises at the end of the year and the market downturn factors, downstream and traders all had the intention of price reduction. Need to purchase.
Medium and high sulfur calcined petroleum coke recarburizer:
This week, the market for high-sulfur calcination coke continued to be under pressure, and the market price fell again by 50-80 yuan/ton. The supply of high-sulfur calcined coke in the market remained stable this week, and the overall production of production enterprises in Hebei and Jiangsu was normal.
Henan Gongyi and Zhengzhou calcined coke enterprises all stopped working; most of the production enterprises in Shandong maintained minimum production load; the demand for medium and high sulfur calcined coke continued to decrease this week, sales were blocked, and most enterprises had inventory backlog.
Market outlook: low-sulfur calcination coke, it is predicted that the market of low-sulfur calcined petroleum coke will be stable next week. Near the end of the year, all enterprises will be mainly shipped, and prices or transactions can continue to be favorable. Medium and high sulfur calcined coke, the market is not good news, and the price of raw petroleum coke falls. Here predicts that the price of calcined petroleum coke will still fall by about 50 yuan/ton next week.
A recarburizer (calcined petroleum coke) is an auxiliary additive. So how can we use it correctly? Now the recarburizer manufacturer introduces you how to use the recarburizer correctly.
When using a recarburizer, place the recarburizer in the middle and lower part of the furnace as much as possible, and add other charge to reduce the overflow of the recarburizer and increase the contact surface between the recarburizer and the molten iron. Improve carbon efficiency.
If the furnace is used in a relatively large furnace, it should be added in multiple times, which can better improve the dissolution rate and increase the absorption rate of the graphitized recarburizer. At the same time, the recarburizer is placed on the bottom of the furnace, and it can also buffer the impact on the bottom of the furnace when the iron is added. This also protects the role of the lining.
The recarburizing agent is used in casting, which can greatly increase the amount of scrap steel, reduce the amount of pig iron or use no pig iron. Therefore, we should use this correctly when using it to better reduce costs.
20181224 This week, the price of medium-grade and high-grade calcined petroleum coke in China's calcined petroleum coke market continued to decline, and the low-grade price was weak. The raw materials of the calcined coke recarburizer market are stable, the production is normal, and the overall performance is general; the price of petroleum coke graphitized recarburizer is limited by the downstream demand and raw material price support, the price is falling, the overall performance is weak, and the graphitization process is more. The market is more competitive.
Calcined petroleum coke:
20181224 This week, the mainstream price of China's calcined petroleum coke recarburizer market continued to decline, mainly due to the slow reception of downstream goods and the increase in corporate inventories. The weakening of raw material prices was slightly down, and the support of the cost side continued to maintain; coupled with the sluggish demand in the downstream market, the new orders of steel mills have not yet been signed, and many negotiations have been held.
Production: The company is currently producing more normal, but in view of the lightness of downstream receiving goods, the raw material prices are going down, the production plan of the enterprise may be adjusted, and the enterprise will consider pricing the order next month. With Shandong, Tianjin and Liaoning as the main areas, environmental protection pressure is relatively high, but as the heating season continues to deepen, heavy pollution weather will increase or limit production. In the short term, prices are mainly stable. It is expected that the prices of raw materials will continue to be weak in the later period, and the price of calcined coke will continue to decline.
Medium and high sulfur calcined petroleum coke: This week, the medium and high sulfur calcined coke market was sluggish, and most enterprises had inventory backlog. The market mainstream transaction price dropped by RMB 50/ton from last week. Environmental protection and downstream demand reduction due to profit reduction is the core problem in the calcined coke market. The market for medium and high sulfur calcined coke has been obviously surplus. In terms of production, this week, Gongyi and Xiangyang calcined coke enterprises all stopped production. Some enterprises in Shandong have already pressed the calciner to the minimum production load. The production situation of Jiangsu and Hebei enterprises has not fluctuated.
Graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer:
20181224 This week, the market price of China's graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer was lowered, and corporate quotations continued to fall. The raw material petroleum coke market continued to be in a downturn, and the market's coke price continued to decline steadily. The favorable factors in the later period were relatively weak, and the short-term support for the price of carbonizers was relatively small.
Production: In the Henan and Xinjiang regions, the production of enterprises in Henan and Xinjiang was suspended due to environmental protection, and the operating rate declined. The enterprises in Jiangsu, Tianjin and Inner Mongolia started to work stably. In addition, the graphitization enterprises of anode materials in the Inner Mongolia market started to work, and the release of graphitized production increased.
Demand: At present, most of the enterprises are mainly to maintain fixed customers. With the production of negative electrode factories in Inner Mongolia, the enterprises have higher filling materials and are filled with the market consumption of recarburizers. The market is under pressure. The annual production of 300,000 tons of carbon-reinforcing agent project will be put into operation in 2019, when the production capacity will lead the refining agent market.
Raw materials: This week, the low-sulfur calcination coke market is not well-sold, the downstream enterprises have reduced the procurement of raw materials, and there is a phenomenon of price reduction. Most of the low-sulfur calcined coke production enterprises have inventory in this week, and the transaction price has dropped significantly. According to the understanding, there is no significant change in the trading of low-sulfur Fushun calcined coke this week, and the price remains stable.
Prediction: The market supply of calcined petroleum coke recarburizer is stable overall, the contradiction between supply and demand appears, and the downstream market has a strong wait-and-see attitude, and the overall market response is poorly shipped. At the same time, the price of raw materials is less likely to be boosted at the same time; According to the surface and demand side, the calcined petroleum coke recarburizer market has maintained a weak and stable operation in the short term, and the risk of decline is expected to be around RMB 100/ton.
20181224 This week, the mainstream price of China's prebaked anode market is stable. The price of coal tar pitch on the raw material side is up, supporting the cost of prebaked anode; the supply end: in the deep heating season, the environmental protection situation is still tense, the enterprises in Zhengzhou, Henan Province are shut down, and it is expected to resume production in mid-February next year. The production of other cities is currently stable.
The overall production performance of enterprises in the main producing area of Shandong Province is normal. The enterprises in the limited production areas have implemented limited production, but the proportion of limited production is small. The enterprises in Jinan are currently producing normally; the decline of downstream electrolytic aluminum prices continues, and the possibility of mitigation in the short term is small. As a result, the cost pressure is high, and individual companies participate in the restriction of production, and the market decreases production.
Start-up situation: Production: Shandong area: Binzhou, Zibo, Liaocheng area enterprises implement production restriction measures, Shandong Jinan and other places of normal production, but the overall safety inspection, environmental inspection is strict; Hebei area: Hebei Hongke normal production, exempt from peak Hebei Quxin carbon production limited to 20%, Xinfeng only birth block; Shanxi area: low start; Jiangsu area: enterprise production is normal, environmental protection pressure is still relatively large.
Hubei area: strict inspection, Hubei Tailai carbon is mainly processed, molding has stopped, currently only calcined coke, Yangxin Liyu carbon is suspended in environmental protection transformation; Henan region: Zhengzhou area enterprises stop production, expected to resume production in mid-February; Luoyang, Jiaozuo, Sanmenxia enterprises can be exempted from ultra-low. The supply of carbon blocks for individual anodes of the supporting anodes was slightly reduced due to the downstream construction. The output of Qinghai Qiaotou was reduced, mainly due to the reduction of electrolytic aluminum production; the shutdown of Chinalco Liancheng carbon and the discontinuation of carbon in Chinalco Lanzhou were currently digesting the main inventory.
Petroleum Coke or calcined petroleum coke(CPC) for prebaked anodes: This week, the petroleum coke market continued its sluggish trend, and the market price continued to decline steadily. The main reason for the impact on coke market trading was the poor downstream demand and the tight capital of enterprises. The price of petroleum coke in Sinopec's refinery was stable this week. Only the refinery's coke price was slightly lowered by 20-30 yuan/ton. CNPC's refineries were down by 50-80 yuan/ton, and CNOOC's refineries lowered 30-70 yuan. /Ton. The mainstream price of local coking was down by RMB 20-70/ton.
Coal tar pitch: This week, the coal tar pitch market is actively pushing up, and the upgraded bitumen is 4000-4500 yuan/ton. The raw coal tar continues to rise sharply, and the cost is supported. The enterprises in Shandong have a limited production operation, and the spot supply is small. It is expected that the coal tar pitch market will continue to rise in the next week, and the actual transaction price will increase by a large load compared with this week, or at least 200-300 yuan / ton.
Supply: According to statistics, in November 2018, China's prebaked anode market totaled 1,546,900 tons (including commercial anodes of 767,500 tons, supporting anodes of 779,400 tons), a decrease of 46,500 tons or 2.89% from October. The main reason for the decline in production: the commercial production of enterprises in the main pre-baked anode production area in Henan Province, the output of most enterprises on the basis of 50% of production, the output will be reduced by half, and even the output of individual enterprises in November, resulting in a decrease in the market anode anode commercial supply; In the supporting anode, the aluminum Lanzhou and Liancheng carbon plants were discontinued, and the aluminum plant in Qinghai reduced production, and the supply of enterprises in individual regions decreased.
Production cuts: Sichuan Guangyuan Qixing Aluminum Industry lost 36,000 tons. Chongqing Guofeng Industrial lost 12,000 tons of losses. Shanxi Jinneng Wuzhou Energy Aluminum Silicon Alloy Co., Ltd. maintains 30 sets of 220KA electrolytic tanks, involving a production capacity of 18,000 tons. The loss reduction of Shanxi Huasheng Aluminum Industry is expected to be around 30,000 tons. Xinjiang Tianlong Mining's 45,000 tons of electrolytic aluminum capacity has withdrawn, and its current operating capacity is 200,000 tons. Shandong Weiqiao aluminum power production peak production cut, is expected to reduce production by about 10%, is expected to be completed by the end of December. The hydropower maintenance in western Qinghai has reduced production and has reduced production by 100,000 tons.
Qinghai Xinheng Aluminum Industry lost money, and the remaining 141 sets of 400KA electrolytic cells were shut down. Shandong Huayu Aluminum Electric has reduced production by 50,000 tons. Gansu Liancheng Aluminum Industry did not reach an agreement due to the price of electricity. It was decided that the remaining 168 sets of 500KA electrolyzers should be shut down, involving a production capacity of 220,000 tons. At present, 59 units have been suspended, and the suspension of production is awaiting negotiations. Shanxi Taiyuan Dong Aluminum Aluminum Co., Ltd. was shut down completely, and its production capacity was 85,000 tons before the production was stopped. Gansu Dongxing Aluminum Co., Ltd. plans to reduce production by 300,000 tons due to the planned inspection and correction. At present, Jiayuguan Branch has reduced production by 80,000 tons, and its current operating capacity is 1.24 million tons. The Minxi Branch has reduced production by 100,000 and its current operating capacity is 230,000 tons.
Dengdian Group Aluminum Alloy Co., Ltd. and Henan Yongdeng Aluminum Co., Ltd. (Yangcheng) Branch slightly reduced production due to tight supply of electricity. Gansu Zhongrui Aluminum has stopped production of 100,000 tons. Linfeng Aluminium Power Co., Ltd. all stopped production. Henan Zhongfu Industrial Co., Ltd. actively reduced its production by 100,000 tons, and currently starts around 300,000 tons. Shanxi Zhaofeng Aluminium Power is expected to shut down 65 units, involving a production capacity of 40,000 tons due to environmental inspections. The current operating capacity is 130,000 tons. Zouping Aluminum has all ceased production, involving a production capacity of 140,000 tons and a production capacity of 60,000 tons before the shutdown.
Henan Shenhuo (Group) Co., Ltd. reduced production by about 120,000 tons and currently has a production capacity of 210,000 tons. Xinjiang Oriental hopes to reduce production to 800,000 tons. Shaanxi Tongchuan Aluminum Industry Co., Ltd. stopped. Huo Coal Tongshun Aluminum is expected to withdraw from the market in 2020 due to losses, intra-group replacement demand, or production cuts but not explicitly reduced production by 115,000 tons. The Chinalco Guizhou branch retreated to the city and the production capacity of 150,000 tons has been reduced.
Resumption of production: Inner Mongolia Jinlian gradually began to resume production. Jiaozuo Wanfang Aluminum has basically completed the resumption of production and partial rotation of the trough. Henan Zhongfu Industrial Co., Ltd. has resumed production of 60,000 tons, and will resume production of 50,000 tons. Henan Wanji Aluminum has a current operating capacity of 550,000 tons. Henan Yongdeng Aluminum Co., Ltd. (Yangcheng) Branch completed the resumption of production. Yichuan Power Group Yugang Longquan Aluminum Industry Co., Ltd. has repaired some of the troughs, and the rest of the production has been completed. The current production capacity is 600,000 tons.
New production: Shaanxi Meixin began production on December 12. Guangxi Hualei new materials completed in four stages of 100,000 tons and 12.25. Inner Mongolia Chuangyuan is expected to continue production in late December. Shanxi Chinalco China Resources, the power problem to maintain the current capacity of 100,000 tons during the year. A series of 125,000 tons of aluminum in Guangxi Debao 100 Mine was started. It is expected that the second series will be 125,000 tons in early January 2019.
Guangxi Tianlin Baiyuan Aluminum Industry started a series of 125,000 tons in early 2018 and has been completed. Gansu Zhongrui Aluminum Industry Phase I has completed 100,000 tons of production, and the second phase has not yet started production. The current funding problem has been reduced. Guangxi Suyuan Investment's second series of 100,000 tons began to continue construction, and it is expected to start production in January 2019. Guangxi Laibin Yinhai Aluminum Co., Ltd. has completed production in early May and now has a production capacity of 500,000 tons.
The 125,000 tons of the fourth section of Guizhou Huaren Aluminum Industry has been completed and put into production. Guizhou Xingren Denggao new materials, the first phase of 125,000 tons of electricity problems again delayed. Inner Mongolia Huayun New Materials on the 21st, the remaining 88 sets of the second plant began to start, and is currently completed. Baotou Xinhengfeng Energy started production in August 2018 and has completed production of 200,000 tons.
Mengtai Aluminum in Baotou City is expected to complete production of 250,000 tons within the year and has been completed. Yingkou Xintai Aluminum Industry Co., Ltd. started production on September 5, and has completed production. Yunnan Yun Aluminum Haixin Aluminum Co., Ltd. started power supply in late July and put into operation 100,000 tons. Heqing Yixin Aluminum is expected to start production of 150,000 tons, and it is expected that production will not be completed within 2018.
Market outlook: raw material petroleum coke price is weak, rebound conditions are limited, coal tar pitch prices are currently rising at a high level, but the anode price support is limited; supply side: the overall performance of the current production enterprises is stable, most of the ignition products in the second half of the year After 19 years of release, the overall supply status will maintain steady state development. Due to the reduction of some enterprises in the downstream electrolytic aluminum market, the consumption of anodes is limited, and the inventory of individual enterprises at the end of the year is consolidating, the procurement strength is slightly reduced, and the overall negative anode consumption.
It is customary to say that steel is a general term for steel and iron, but the actual steel and iron are different. The two are mainly divided by the amount of carbon. For the increase of carbon content, it is necessary to use a recarburizer, and a petroleum coke recarburizer[calcined petroleum coke & graphitized petroleum coke] is commonly used.
The carbon content classification standard for steel.
China has used the carbon content of steel as the grading standard for many years. In the national standard for casting carbon steel, regarding the steel grade, chemical composition and mechanical properties, the “ZG” in the grade indicates cast steel, and then The figure indicates the nominal value of the weight fraction of carbon in the steel, expressed in parts per million. Cast carbon steel is classified into three grades according to the phosphorus and sulfur content of its impurity elements, and the grades of grades of phosphorus and sulfur are less than 0.04% (I grade) steel; and the quality of grade II grade steel is less than 0.05%. Less than 0.06% is ordinary (III grade) steel.
1. Low carbon steel: usually C% <0.25%, called low carbon steel, low strength, good plasticity and weldability.
2, medium carbon steel: C% is 0.25 ~ 0.60%, called medium carbon steel, has higher strength, but poor plasticity and weldability.
3, high carbon steel: C%> 0.60%, called high carbon steel. Poor plasticity and weldability, but high strength and hardness after heat treatment.
More than 2% carbon is cast iron, and cast iron is mainly gray cast iron and ductile iron. Recarburizers[CPC & GPC] are often used in the smelting of cast iron.
1. Gray cast iron C%: 2.7%-3.9%. Ordinary gray cast iron is mainly cast iron in which carbon is precipitated in the form of flake graphite. Gray cast iron is widely used. In the total output of various types of cast iron, gray cast iron accounts for more than 80%.
2. Ductile iron C%: 3.5% -3.9%, ductile iron is a high-strength cast iron material, its comprehensive performance is close to steel, it is based on its excellent performance, has been successfully used for casting some force complex, strength Parts with high toughness and wear resistance. Ductile iron has rapidly developed into a cast iron material that is second only to gray cast iron and is widely used. The so-called "iron-based steel" mainly refers to ductile iron.
2018.12.07 This week, the mainstream price of China's prebaked anode market fell, mainly due to the low price of raw materials, the downstream electrolytic aluminum market was affected by the cost pressure, and the loss operation of the company had a common impact. The purchase price of the pre-baked anode market of an aluminum company in Shandong in December. Compared with November, it was down by RMB 50/ton.
Production: The implementation of the limited production requirements for limited production in Shandong Province, the overall performance of other regions is normal, but the safety inspection is still severe; Henan region, affected by high environmental protection requirements and heavy pollution weather, in which the enterprises in Gongyi and Fuyang are suspended, it is expected The possibility of resumption of production on January 17 is relatively small. The company's response is expected to be postponed until mid-February, and other areas in Zhengzhou may also face production suspension. The environmental protection situation in Hebei, Jiangsu and Hubei is strict.
Start-up situation: Production: Shandong area: Binzhou, Zibo, Liaocheng area enterprises implement production restriction measures, the current production is normal, Shandong Jinan and other places of normal production, but the overall safety inspection, environmental inspection is strict; Hebei: Hebei Hongke normal production Exempted from the wrong peak, Hebei Quxin carbon limited production of 20%, Xinfeng only birth block; Shanxi area: currently only two small generation processing as anode, Danyuan conversion, Guan Aluminum discontinued; Jiangsu area: enterprise production is normal, environmental protection The pressure is still large. Hubei area: strict inspection, Hubei Tailai carbon is mainly processed, molding has stopped, currently only calcined coke, Yangxin Liyu carbon is suspended in environmental protection transformation; Henan area: Huihao environmental protection equipment rectification, the current production state.
Gongyi and Shuyang all stopped production, Zhengzhou Great Wall Aluminum Industry participated in the wrong peak, limited production half, and may stop production in the later stage, Henan Branch has all stopped production. Luoyang, Jiaozuo, Sanmenxia enterprises can be exempted from ultra-low. The supply of carbon blocks for individual anodes of the supporting anodes was slightly reduced due to downstream construction. After the technical transformation of carbon forming in Huanghe Xinye, it was officially put into operation and normal operation; the output of Qinghai Qiaotou was reduced, mainly due to the reduction of production of electrolytic aluminum; the shutdown of Chinalco Liancheng carbon was completed, Chinalco Lanzhou Carbon is discontinued and the main digested inventory is currently available.
Fushun Aluminum's new carbon project (350,000 tons) roasting furnace was successfully ignited and started. It is expected that the products will be burnt and burned first in the second quarter of 2019.
Cost: Calcined petroleum coke for prebaked anode: 2018.12.07 This week, the price of petroleum coke market went up and down. Among them, the Sinopec refinery made up the price, the refining price of the refining bottom bottomed out, and the coke price of CNOOC remained weak. The price is stable and wait and see. The price of downstream electrolytic aluminum is still in a downward trend, and the calcined coke is under pressure, so the overall support for the raw material petroleum coke market price is weak. This week, the price of petroleum coke in Sinopec's refinery was lowered by 40-50 yuan/ton, and the individual refineries of PetroChina were lowered by 100 yuan/ton.
Coal tar pitch: The price of coal tar pitch is mainly discussed this week. Under the support of slightly lower supply of medium temperature asphalt, the downward trend tends to be slow. It is expected that the monthly pricing of the big factory may be lower than the previous forecast, and the coal tar pitch market will gradually bottom out next week, and the manufacturer of the modified asphalt main production area will talk about it.
Supply: According to Baichuan Information, in November 2018, China's prebaked anode market totaled 1,546,900 tons (including commercial anodes of 767,500 tons and supporting anodes of 779,400 tons), a decrease of 46,500 tons from the previous month, a decrease of 2.89. %. The main reason for the decline in production: the commercial production of enterprises in the main pre-baked anode production area in Henan Province, the output of most enterprises on the basis of 50% of production, the output will be reduced by half, and even the output of individual enterprises in November, resulting in a decrease in the market anode anode commercial supply; In the supporting anode, the aluminum Lanzhou and Liancheng carbon plants were discontinued, and the aluminum plant in Qinghai reduced production, and the supply of enterprises in individual regions decreased.
Production reduction: Shanxi Jinneng Group Cangzhou Energy Aluminum Silicon Alloy Co., Ltd. maintains 30 sets of 220KA electrolyzers, involving a production capacity of 18,000 tons. Xinjiang Tianlong Mining Co., Ltd. has a capacity of 45,000 tons of electrolytic aluminum, and its current operating capacity is 200,000 tons. Shandong Weiqiao aluminum power peak reduction production, is expected to reduce production by about 10%, is expected to be completed before December 1. The hydropower maintenance and production reduction in western Qinghai has been reduced by 100,000 tons. The remaining 141 sets of 400KA electrolyzers in Qinghai Xinheng Aluminum were shut down. Shandong Huayu aluminum power peak has been reduced by 50,000 tons. Gansu Liancheng Aluminum has stopped 59 units and suspended production for awaiting the outcome of the negotiations. Shanxi Taiyuan East Aluminum Aluminum was shut down completely. Gansu Dongxing Aluminum Jiayuguan Branch reduced production by 80,000 tons, and Daixi Branch reduced production by 100,000.
Dengda Group Aluminum and Henan Yongdeng Aluminum (Yangcheng) have slightly reduced production. Gansu Zhongrui Aluminum has all stopped production. Linfeng Aluminium Power Co., Ltd. all stopped production. Henan Zhongfu Industrial actively reduced production by 100,000 tons. Shanxi Zhaofeng Aluminium Power is expected to shut down 65 units and involve a production capacity of 40,000 tons. Zouping Aluminum has all stopped production. Henan Shenhuo reduced production by about 120,000 tons. Xinjiang Oriental hopes to reduce production to 800,000 tons. Shaanxi Tongchuan Aluminum Division stopped. Huo Coal Tongshun Aluminum is expected to withdraw from the market in 2020. Chinalco Guizhou has completed production cuts. The overhaul of the hydroelectric electrolysis tank in the western part of Qinghai is about to begin, with a planned reduction of 150,000 tons. Qinghai Xinheng Aluminum Co., Ltd. is expected to shut down 140,000 tons due to losses and other issues, and currently has a production capacity of 140,000 tons.
Resumption of production: Inner Mongolia Jinlian aluminum gradually began to resume production. Jiaozuo Wanfang Aluminum has completed the resumption of production and partial trough repairs. Henan Zhongfu Industrial Co., Ltd. has resumed production of 60,000 tons, and will resume production of 50,000 tons. Henan Wanji has a current operating capacity of 550,000 tons. Henan Yongdeng Aluminum Industry (Yangcheng) completed the resumption of production. Yichuan Power Group Yugang Longquan Aluminum has some tank repairs, and the rest of the production has been completed. The current production capacity is 600,000 tons.
New production: Shanxi Chinalco China Resources maintains a current capacity of 100,000 tons. The four-stage 100,000 tons of Guangxi Hualei new materials is expected to be completed around Christmas. Inner Mongolia Chuangyuan has a production capacity of 120,000 tons. It is now temporarily put into operation due to the power problem. It is expected to start production in early December. A series of 125,000 tons of aluminum in Guangxi Debao 100 Mine was started. It is expected that the second series will be 125,000 tons in early January 2019. A series of 125,000 tons of aluminum in the Tianlin Baiyuan Mine in Guangxi has been completed. The first phase of Gansu Zhongrui Aluminum Industry has completed 100,000 tons. The second series of 100,000 tons of Guangxi Suyuan Investment Co., Ltd. is expected to start production in January 2019.
Guangxi Laibin Yinhai Aluminum has a production capacity of 500,000 tons. The 125,000 tons of the fourth section of Guizhou Huaren Aluminum Industry has been completed and put into production. The problem of 125,000 tons of electricity in the first phase of Guizhou Xingren Denggao New Material was once again delayed. Inner Mongolia Huayun New Materials on the 21st, the remaining 88 sets of the second plant began to start, and is currently completed. Baotou Xinhengfeng Energy has already put into operation 200,000 tons. Mengtai Aluminum in Baotou City will be put into production of 50,000 tons. Shaanxi Meixin is expected to start production on December 10. Yingkou Xintai Aluminum Co., Ltd. is expected to complete production by the end of November. Yunnan Yun Aluminum Haixin Aluminum Co., Ltd. put into operation 100,000 tons. Heqing Yixin Aluminum Co., Ltd. is expected to put into operation 150,000 tons, and it is expected that it will not be put into production within 2018.
The market outlook: raw material petroleum coke prices began to rebound individually, coal tar pitch prices are weak, short-term pre-baked anode support is slightly weak; downstream aluminum prices "falling down", electrolytic aluminum enterprises actively reduce production, limited anode demand Supply side: Even if some enterprises in Henan have stopped production, in view of the small production capacity of enterprises and the low operating rate before the suspension of production, the impact on the overall supply of the market is limited, and it is difficult to break the current oversupply situation in the market. Prices are stable and the export volume is expected to increase slightly.